EV Regulatory Reference Guide 2014 - Proposal
|Name:||EV Regulatory Reference Guide 2014 - Proposal|
|Description:||Electric Vehicle Regulatory Reference Guide - Proposal.|
|Official Title:||Proposal for an Electric Vehicle Regulatory Reference Guide.|
|Country:||ECE - United Nations|
|Date of Issue:||2014-08-28|
|Number of Pages:||46|
|Information:||Adopted at the 164th Session of WP.29 by the Executive Committee (AC.3) of the 1998 Agreement - November 2014.|
|Vehicle Types:||Agricultural Tractor, Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle|
|Subject Categories:||Electrical and Electronic, Drafts and Proposals (Current)|
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PROPOSAL FOR AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE
REGULATORY REFERENCE GUIDE
Submitted by the Working Party on Pollution and Energy
ADOPTED AT THE 164 SESSION OF WP.29 BY THE EXECUTIVE
COMMITTEE (AC.3) OF THE 1998 AGREEMENT – NOVEMBER 2014
Vehicle Range and Energy Consumption Testing
Method of Stating Energy Consumption
Battery Performance and Durability
Leadership Organization Chart, EVE
3. As a working group under WP.29, EVE has the following broad goals that are stipulated
in the group's TOR:
Exchange information on current and future regulatory requirements for EVs in
Identify and seek to minimize the differences between regulatory requirements,
with a view toward facilitating the development of vehicles to comply with such
In the event EVE identifies the need to develop a United Nations Global Technical
Regulation (GTR) following a thorough review of the issues and potential areas for
regulatory harmonization, a recommendation would be brought to GRPE and then
to AC.3 for consideration regarding potential GTR activities.
4. The following specific objectives were established by EVE in the group's TOR:
Develop a priority list of topics to address the most timely and significant
considerations before EVE;
Understand and document the current consideration of EVs under the work of
other established informal working groups: Electric Vehicle Safety (EVS),
Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP), Heavy Duty Hybrids
(HDH), Vehicle Propulsion System Definitions (VPSD), and Environmental and
Propulsion Performance Requirements for light vehicles (L-EPPR);
Establish a mechanism for sharing ongoing research and information on topics
related to EVs and the environment;
Develop a reference guide for regulatory activities already established or being
considered by Contracting Parties.
1.2.1. Document Aim, Intended Audience
8. The EV Reference Guide is intended to serve as a single point of reference relative to
the worldwide, environmentally-related EV requirements landscape as it was at the time
of this data collection (September 2013). The document captures, based on the
information provided by Contracting Parties and other WP.29 members, the existence
and extent of regulations relating to critical EV attributes including any standards that are
available for voluntary compliance. Additionally, the guide highlights any on-going efforts
to develop appropriate standards, regulations or other appropriate requirements. The
primary intended audiences of the document are members of government and
non-governmental regulatory bodies and agencies involved in the implementation and
adoption of policy and regulations relating to electrified vehicles. The guide will identify
differences in requirements (regulatory and voluntary) as well as highlight gaps in the
requirements framework, allowing Contracting Parties to consider actions to minimize
differences and narrow gaps. In addition, the guide will be part of the public domain and,
therefore, be available as a source of information to other EV industry stakeholders such
as original equipment manufacturers and suppliers of electrified vehicle components
such as batteries, power electronics and charging solutions.
1.2.2. Connection to WP.29, Potential GTR Development or Adaptation of Existing GTRs
9. The reference guide through its thorough overview of EV requirements permits the
observation of issues and gaps that could potentially be addressed by the pursuit of
GTRs or other suitable efforts such as supplementing the work on existing GTRs or
GTRs under development (WLTP, Worldwide harmonized Heavy-Duty Certification
procedure (WHDC), Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle emissions Certification (WMTC),
for topics within the scope of WP.29. The guide could also result in efforts by other
groups (non-WP.29) to address topics that are outside the scope of WP.29. In the
context of the former, the reference guide serves to highlight such opportunities that after
thorough review by the EVE including consideration of potential benefit and any overlap
with efforts on-going in other informal working groups can be recommended to GRPE
and subsequently to WP.29 for development and adoption. Actual development of GTRs
or amendment of existing GTRs is not part of the current working group mandate and is,
therefore, not part of the scope of the reference guide. Recommendations to develop
GTRs or extend existing GTRs are, however, part of this reference guide.
10. In addition, this guide does not attempt to assign responsibility for future work but rather
focuses on the important environmental attributes of electrified vehicles. Important
environmental attributes are established in this guide as a reflection of input received
from contracting party respondents. Where future work is noted, particularly within the
WLTP or L-EPPR group, it is documented in attempt to inform future discussions of how
responsibilities and mandates may be managed.
2.1.2. Scope of Guide
13. Attributes related to EV safety were not included (i.e. crash testing, electrical safety
standards for internal wiring, etc.) as these fall under the mandate of EVS. Attributes are
grouped by those related to vehicle, battery, charging infrastructure and market
deployment support (Figure 3). In order to remain within the scope of the WP.29
(vehicle-only related regulations), attributes related directly to the vehicle and battery
were prioritized; charging infrastructure attributes related directly to the vehicle and
market deployment support attributes were also included, but are of lower priority.
Groups and Corresponding Attributes, EV Reference Guide
Other Stakeholder Participants, EV Regulatory Reference Guide Survey
16. It was decided by the EVE leadership that the government responses would form the
foundation of the reference guide, while the other stakeholder responses would
supplement this foundation. All parties were then invited to review and comment on draft
versions of the reference guide. The latter allowed for a wide range of feedback and
comments that were believed would lead to a more accurate and complete guide. In
addition to the survey responses, relevant Regulations and on-going efforts to address
electrified vehicle requirements through other WP.29 working groups are captured in the
reference guide. Figure 6 summarizes the various sources that inform the content of the
Information Sources, EV Reference Guide
3.1. Electric Range
Attribute Definition: The maximum distance an electrified vehicle can travel using only battery
power. In the case of off-vehicle-chargeable hybrid electric vehicles (OVC-HEV) also indicate
the "total range". Vehicle range determination can include a specific drive cycle, test
procedures and vehicle preconditioning. Please specify "end of test condition" used. Please
include these elements in your answer, if applicable.
Note: This attribute refers to the vehicle's electric range and is not intended to consider any
minimum range standard to be classified as an OVC-HEV.
19. Figure 8 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning electric vehicle
range. This can also be observed from the first column in Figure 7.
Electric Range Requirements, Worldwide View
3.2. Energy Consumption/Efficiency
Attribute Definition: Energy required to travel X km in standardized conditions. Energy
consumption/efficiency determination can include a specific drive cycle, test procedures and
22. Figure 9 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning electric energy
consumption/efficiency. This can also be observed from the second column in Figure 7.
Electrified Vehicle Energy Consumption/Efficiency Requirements, Worldwide View
23. Canada does not presently have in place any requirements relating to electrified vehicle
energy consumption/efficiency. There are voluntary Chinese National Standards
pertaining to energy efficiency of EVs (GB/T 18386-2005) and HEVs (GB/T 19753-2005),
which have been subsequently recognized as mandatory. The European Union (EU) and
Switzerland regulate EV energy consumption through the test procedure outlined in
UN-R101, Annex 7. India's test requirements (AIS 039) draw extensively from UN-R101,
Annex 7. Japan specifies its own test procedure based on the JC08 dynamometer test
cycle (TRIAS 99-011-01). The Republic of Korea has adopted the same requirements
specified by the US EPA/NHTSA. The US EPA/NHTSA require that electrified vehicle
energy consumption be determined in accordance to SAE J1634 (PEV), J1711
(NOVC-HEV and including OVC-HEV) and J2841 (Utility Factor Definitions for
OVC-HEV). California does not have separate requirements for energy consumption and
is generally aligned with the preceding US Federal regulations.
3.4. Electrified Vehicle Recycling and Re-use
Attribute Definition: Requirements for recycling and/or reusing vehicle components and/or
27. Figure 11 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning electrified
vehicle recycling and re-use. This can also be observed from the fourth column in
Figure 7. Canada employs a voluntary code of conduct to guide recyclers, known as the
Canadian Auto Recyclers' Environmental Code (CAREC). China has a mandatory
Chinese National Standard that governs vehicle end-of-life recycling and dismantling
(GB 22128-2008). The EU regulates M and N type vehicle recycling through its
Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles (2000/53/EC). Directive 2005/64/EC is a subsequent
law that further stipulates the degree of recyclability, reusability and recoverability
required for M and N vehicles prior to their approval for sale in the EU. India is in the
process of formulating standards for vehicle recycling. It is assumed that these will
initially be voluntary in nature. Japan governs vehicle recycling through Act No. 87 of the
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (Act on Recycling, etc. of End-of-Life Vehicles).
The Republic of Korea stipulates requirements for vehicle recycling through
Act No. 11913, managed by the Ministry of Environment. Swiss federal regulations for
recycling are based on EC Directive 2000/53/EC mentioned previously. The USA does
not presently have any federal requirements that govern vehicle recycling.
Electrified Vehicle Recycling and Re-use Requirements, Worldwide View
28. It should be noted that, in addition to governing the recycling of vehicles, Japan and the
Republic of Korea have laws that require vehicle manufacturers to pro-actively
emphasize recyclability in the design and manufacture of their products.
33. The EU employs a fuel economy label that provides fuel consumption, annual operating
cost, and CO emissions for light duty motor vehicles. In the EU this labelling scheme is
not yet applicable to L-Category vehicles but vehicle manufacturers are required to
ensure that the CO emission, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption and
electric range data are provided to the buyer of the vehicle at the time of purchase of a
new vehicle, in a format which they consider appropriate. CO emissions are ranked
using an alphabetized grade (A-G) system. Emissions of vehicles determine in turn the
level of Vehicle Circulation Tax imposed for usage of the vehicle.
34. India does not have regulations governing vehicle labelling, there are however two
voluntary label formats available for adherence to by vehicle manufacturers. The two
formats are from the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) and Bureau of
Energy Efficiency (BEE) of which both mainly focus on a single average value for vehicle
fuel consumption. Electrified vehicles are not addressed by either one of these labels.
35. Japan has voluntary fuel economy performance stickers that can be affixed to vehicles
that meet or exceed fuel economy standards. These labels indicate that the vehicles
bearing them are eligible for fiscal incentives only and do not provide any specifications
or actual statement of fuel consumption. There is no label available for PEVs,
OVC-HEVs, or vehicles featuring natural gas or clean diesel powertrains, despite these
vehicles being included under the same fiscal incentive scheme.
36. The Republic of Korea introduced fuel economy labels according to the 'Energy Use
Rationalization Act' in 1989, and improved the label scheme extensively with the new
fuel economy adjusted by the 5-cycle formula to reflect real-world driving conditions as
done in the USA in 2011. The values on the label represent the performance of the
vehicle in terms of the fuel economy values. Numerical grades between 1 and 5 are
divided according to the fuel economy values: the number 1 denotes fuel economy
>16km/L ('best'), 2 denotes fuel economy of 15.9-13.8km/L, 3 denotes fuel economy of
13.7-11.6km/L, 4 denotes fuel economy of 11.5-9.4km/L, and 5 denotes fuel economy of
< 9.3km/L ('worst'). All the vehicles with gross vehicle weight of 3.5t or less have to be
given the grade except PEVs and compact cars with a displacement of 1,000cc or less.
37. Switzerland requires labels indicating fuel consumption, CO emissions, and a letter
grade between (A-G) denoting performance in fuel economy; A indicates the lowest
consuming vehicle and G the highest, where the indication from A to G is segment
specific by considering inter alia the vehicle curb weight.
3.6. Battery Performance
Attribute Definition: Methods and conditions for testing and measuring battery power delivery
capability, energy storage capacity, battery charge, etc.
40. Figure 14 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning battery
performance requirements. This can also be observed from the first column in Figure 13.
Battery Performance Requirements, Worldwide View
3.7. Battery Durability
Attribute Definition: Methods and conditions for determining average life cycle count, shock and
vibration resistance, temperature, etc.
42. Figure 15 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning battery
durability requirements. This can also be observed from the second column in Figure 13.
Battery Durability Requirements, Worldwide View
3.8. Battery Recycling
Attribute Definition: Battery material recycling standards.
45. Figure 16 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning battery
recycling requirements. This can also be observed from the third column in Figure 13.
Battery Recycling Requirements, Worldwide View
46. Canada does not have a single specific requirement for the recycling of batteries but
indirectly mandates the proper recycling of batteries through underlying general recycling
and disposal laws in various Acts; for example, the Canada Water Act, etc. Chinese
standards relating to battery recycling do not exist at the present time, but are said to be
under formulation. In the EU, battery recycling is addressed by the same legislation
addressing vehicle recycling, which is Directive 2000/53/EC on end-of-life vehicles.
Directive 2006/66/EC stipulates additional battery-specific requirements relating to
maximum permissible quantities of hazardous elements in the batteries themselves as
well required recycling, collection and disposal procedures. European Commission
Regulation 493/2012 specifies the required methodology for achievement of the
recycling efficiency defined in Annex III of batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. It should be
noted, however, that the previously mentioned directives do not include battery recycling
requirements specifically tailored to hybrid-electric and pure electric vehicles. Japan
governs battery recycling through Act No. 87 of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and
Industry (Act on Recycling, etc. of End-of-Life Vehicles). Switzerland governs battery
recycling through its Chemical Risk Reduction Ordinance. India, the Republic of Korea,
and the USA do not presently have requirements governing battery recycling.
49. The latest developments (at the time of this writing, September 2013) at the
UNECE level include the recently developed regulation on uniform provisions concerning
the recyclability of motor vehicles. It has been based on the existing provisions of
Directives 2000/53/EC (End-of-life vehicles) and 2005/64/EC (Recyclability, reusability
and recovery of vehicles and components) and, therefore, does not include specific
provisions for electrified vehicle battery re-use. Battery re-use or second-use as it is
sometimes called is somewhat of a research topic at the moment. Some believe that
re-purposing of these batteries could result in an EV ownership cost reduction which
could subsequently spur EV adoption rates. Automakers such as BMW, General Motors
and Nissan in partnership with companies like ABB and Vattenfall are actively exploring
possible second-use applications for retired EV battery packs. Applications being studied
range from home or neighbourhood back-up power systems, to more advanced grid
power buffering strategies (smart grid). Figure 18 shows a microgrid backup system
powered by five used Chevrolet Volt batteries, which was the result of a collaboration
effort between ABB and General Motors. Automakers such as Renault, have introduced
a new business model within the framework of battery pack re-usability. In this model,
the battery pack is leased to the vehicle owner, while actual ownership of the battery
pack is retained by the manufacturer. When these battery packs reach the end of their
operational life, the automaker replaces them with new battery packs at a fraction of the
cost of the actual battery. Through this approach, battery packs are either
remanufactured as replacement battery packs or are utilized in second-use applications.
Microgrid Battery Backup Technology, General Motors, ABB Collaboration
Note: Infrastructure attributes are generally outside the scope of WP.29 and are, therefore, not
addressed in the context of recommendations presented in this guide. An overview of the
current state of requirements is, however, considered appropriate and is, therefore,
3.10. On-board Charging System
Attribute Definition: Specifications and requirements for on-board charging system, including
voltage, current, port for AC and/or DC power, etc.
51. Figure 20 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning on-board
charging requirements. This can also be observed in the first column of Figure 19.
On-board Charging System Requirements, Worldwide View
52. Globally, on-board charging is generally guided by IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 Standards.
The IEC 61851 Standards specify the general requirements and functionality of
conductive charging equipment, while the IEC 62196 standards specify connector
requirements. IEC 61851-21 (ed.1.0) is currently under revision and will be split into
IEC 61851-21-1 (EV on-board charger EMC requirements), and IEC 61851-21-2
(EMC requirements for off-board electric vehicle charging systems). IEC 61851-22
(ed.1.0) is scheduled to be withdrawn once the edition 3.0 of IEC 61851-1 is published.
IEC 62196-2 is a Standard for dimensional compatibility and interchangeability of
coupling systems for AC conductive charging, and contains three types of coupling
systems: Type 1 is compatible with SAE J1772 and widely used in Japan and USA for
vehicle inlet/connector, Type 2 is used in Europe for both vehicle inlet/connector and
plug/socket outlet and Type 3 is used in some countries in Europe for plug/socket outlet.
55. Globally, off-board charging is generally guided by IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 Standards.
The IEC 61851 Standards specify the general requirements and functionality of
conductive charging equipment, while the IEC 62196 Standards specify connector
requirements. IEC 61851-23 (DC charging stations), IEC 61851-24 (control
communications) and IEC 62196-3 (vehicle couplers) will define specific requirements for
conductive charging with a DC connection and are expected to be published in early
56. Canada does not have federal requirements for off-board charging, as this issue is under
provincial jurisdiction. As with most electrical installations, chargers must comply with
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standards for electric appliances and the
Canadian Electric Code. China maintains several voluntary standards in relation to
off-board charging. These include Chinese National Standards (GB/T 20234.1-2011,
GB/T 20234.3-2011, GB/T 27930-2011), which are considered to be quoted in
regulation, and Energy Industry Standards (NB/T 33001-2010). The EU is in-line to adopt
the a new EU Directive referencing the new IEC Standard IEC 62196-3 on vehicle
connectors, as well as existing Standard IEC Standard IEC 62196-2. Member States of
the EU will be required to transpose the requirements into their national laws, regulations
and standards within two-years of adoption and this is likely to be complete by 2017.
Japan has voluntary standards through the CHAdeMO connector system
(JARI JEVSG105 and IEC 62196-3). The Republic of Korea in accordance with its
so-called 'Industrial Standardization Act' has established voluntary Standards
(KS C IEC 61851-1 and KS C IEC 61851-23) relating to off-board charging. Switzerland,
like the EU is also in-line to adopt the upcoming IEC Standards mentioned previously.
The USA has voluntary Standards for off-board DC charging through SAE J1772 (up to
DC Level 2). India does do not presently have any requirements in place relating to
off-board charging. Figure 22 summarizes the various IEC Standards governing
conductive charging and the anticipated timing of their release.
IEC Standards Governing Conductive Charging
3.13. Vehicle as Electricity Supply
Attribute Definition: Vehicle-related specifications and requirements for transferring electricity
from EVs to the grid.
59. Figure 24 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning vehicle as
electricity supply requirements. This can be observed in the fourth column of Figure 19.
Vehicle as Electricity Supply Requirements, Worldwide View
60. There are no legislated regulations in place anywhere in the world that govern the
requirements of a vehicle functioning as an electricity supply. China does not have any
national or professional standards in place, but has several so-called enterprise
standards that stipulate basic requirements relating to bi-directional charging equipment
(Q/GDW 397-2009, Q/GDW 398-2009, Q/GDW 399-2009). In the EU, initial portions of
an eight part ISO/IEC Standard (ISO/IEC 15118) are currently available while the
remaining portions are in formulation. Japan is said to have enterprise standards that
stipulate basic requirements relating to bi-directional charging equipment (Electric
Vehicle Power Supply Association Guideline EVPS-001/002/003/004 2013). In the USA,
initial voluntary Standards are available in the form of SAE recommended practices
J2836, J2847, and J2931 which are continuing to be developed and extended to more
fully address the necessary requirements. The maturity level of the ISO/IEC Standards
and their SAE counterparts are generally similar, with a substantial amount of remaining
effort required to finalize them for their intended purpose. It should be noted that the
preceding efforts relate primarily to the development of the appropriate grid
communication interface. None of them are yet addressing the actual functionality of the
vehicle as an electricity supply. The only modest exception is Japan where requirements
that allow an electrified vehicle to be used as an electricity supply in emergency cases
are said to already be available. Canada, India, the Republic of Korea and Switzerland
do not yet have any requirements in place relating to this attribute, but are expected to
eventually adopt in some fashion the ISO/IEC or SAE Standards that are presently in
3.14. Regulatory Incentives
Attribute Definition: Legal requirements that contain an incentive for deployment of electrified
vehicles. The term 'legal requirements' is broad and can refer to any regulation, legislation,
code, and/or standard that is rooted in law.
62. Figure 26 provides a global picture of the responses received concerning regulatory
incentives. This can also be observed in the first column of Figure 25. It can be seen that
in general, regulatory incentives are widely available throughout the world. Canada's
current greenhouse gas emission regulations for new cars and trucks aim to reduce
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from vehicles by establishing mandatory
GHG emission standards in alignment with US standards (see below). The regulations
include additional flexibilities for advanced technologies, like hybrid and electrified
vehicles, which encourage vehicle manufacturers to adopt low GHG emission
technology. China has established a Corporate Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) law
which specifies standards, methods and regulatory incentives for PEVs, FCVs, and
OVC-HEVs with electric driving ranges greater than 50km as well as for so-called low
fuel consumption vehicles (lower than 2.8L/100km). The corresponding rules pertaining
to credits and penalties are under development.
Regulatory Incentives, Worldwide View
4.1. High Activity Areas
Activity Chart, Overall Level of Electrified Vehicle Requirements
65. Figure 27 provides an overview of the overall level of activity by attribute, for electrified
vehicle requirements. This chart and the ones that follow (Figures 28-31) employ a
simple scoring system where responses of no requirements are assigned a numerical
value of 0, voluntary requirements are assigned a value of 1, and legislated requirements
are assigned a value of 2. There is no scoring difference between requirements that
already exist and that are being developed. For Figure 27, the total for each category
has been divided by the number of attributes in that category, providing a representative
average value for each category. In general the presence of requirements in the
surveyed countries was high with respect to vehicle-level attributes, with the exception of
driver-user information which was largely absent across the countries (China and Japan
are the exceptions). This is illustrated in Figure 28.
Activity Chart, Vehicle Attributes
68. Battery durability is somewhat unaddressed by present standards, the exceptions being
China and partial coverage (HEVs) by US and Canadian laws. The activity level is
expected to increase globally. These requirements may not only address battery lifecycle
determination, but also the impact of partially deteriorated batteries on CO emissions /
69. Battery recycling is partially addressed, but through largely country-specific protocols
and with, therefore, little standardization from a global perspective. These requirements
are also generally non-battery-specific and tend to take the form of general end-of-life
vehicle recycling guidelines. The exception is the EC which stipulates battery-specific
requirements pertaining to permissible quantities of hazardous materials as well as
specific required recycling procedures.
70. Battery performance is partially addressed, and by a range of largely voluntary standards
established by international organizations (ISO, IEC) and other organizations such as
SAE. Thus, there is lack of standardization in regards to the required procedures and
hence outcome of battery performance testing.
71. Infrastructure attributes are also generally low in terms of their level of activity
(Figure 27), and tend to be dominated by voluntary standards. Figure 31 illustrates the
activity level of each sub-attribute. A number of these attributes such as off-board
charging, wireless charging, and vehicle as an electricity supply can be regarded as
developing topics in the EV domain. Given this, despite the relatively low score,
requirements to properly address these attributes are being actively and methodically
pursued, in most cases through international Standards (ISO, IEC) and through the
efforts of other organizations like SAE.
Activity Chart, Infrastructure Attributes
74. Battery recycling by virtue of its widely differing requirements globally can be considered
to be gapped as well. Overall there are a limited number of requirements relating to
battery recycling globally at the present time.
75. Battery re-use post mobility represents a wide gap that will be challenging to govern
given the highly variable nature of battery wear and inherent differences in chemistry,
construction, and power management. Given that batteries dominate the cost of
electrified vehicles and are typically deemed unusable from a mobility standpoint after
degrading to between 70 and 80% of fully-chargeable capacity, there is a compelling
reason to take a serious look at re-using these batteries in other applications. In order to
ensure the success of battery re-use, guidelines and regulations that govern the
implementation, as well as ensure the reliability durability of such systems are crucial.
This is likely to be challenging given that used batteries can be subject to a wide range of
usage behaviours that can in turn influence the consistency of their performance over
time. There may also be a need for additional regulation/legislation in this field to prevent
misuse or abuse of rechargeable batteries offered for second use. In addition, the
question of the application of the extended producer responsibility is raised in the case of
the end of life management of these batteries after their second use.
4.3.3. Infrastructure Attributes
76. Infrastructure attributes are generally on the path towards well specified, thorough
requirements. This effort is being led by a roadmap of ISO/IEC Standards that govern
the system interface and communication protocols, and a generally well harmonized set
of standards that govern the charging and coupling interface. The gap here is one that is
temporary, and progressively closing.
4.3.4. Market Deployment Attributes
77. There are no gaps that exist in the context of regulatory incentives.
5. NEXT STEPS
5.1. Vehicle Range and Energy Consumption Testing
78. It is recognized that electrified vehicle range is affected substantively by vehicle speed
and driving behaviour, ambient temperature, and the operation of climate control
systems. Proper accounting for cabin heating is crucial, not only to ensure that
consumers are provided with realistic estimates of electric-mode vehicle driving range,
but so that EVs equipped with advanced, efficient heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning (HVAC) systems are able to prove their effectiveness and justify any
potential cost differential between them and more conventional resistive heating
systems. Similarly, assessing vehicle performance at elevated ambient temperatures
with air conditioning in operation should be of regulatory concern.
82. Specifically this metric could consider the following:
Vehicle energy source upstream emissions;
Applicability to fleet average calculations;
Specific energy sources used by the vehicle and operating conditions can vary by
region and are not managed by the vehicle manufacturer;
Easily understood by the consumer;
Of interest to the consumer in the context of comparing products;
Flexible enough to cover a wide range of propulsion system technologies;
Adopted widely across vehicle manufacturers;
Adopted widely across the world.
83. Other considerations for electrified vehicle energy consumption include geographical and
seasonal variation in liquid fuel lower heating values, and the relative efficiency
associated with the upstream production of fuels and other energy carriers. The latter
can vary depending on the method of power generation and source of raw input energy
(heavy fuel, gas, biofuel, wind, solar, hydro, etc.). These considerations also merit further
research and discussion.
84. At the time of drafting this Guide, there was agreement between contracting parties that
this recommendation is an important issue that needs to be addressed. However, there
was disagreement on how and who should address this issue; some Contracting Parties
(Japan and EU) feel strongly this work is not appropriate for GRPE, while others
(Canada, China, USA) feel this work could be completed by GRPE. It is recommended
that the foundation for future work be further explored and addressed by WP.29/AC.3.
5.3. Battery Performance and Durability
85. UN-R101 specifies test procedures for measurement of energy consumption and range
of electrified vehicles in Annex 7. Annex 2 specifies required battery performance
information that should be reported, but a specific battery performance test procedure is
lacking. An SAE recommended practice is in progress (J1798), while there are a number
of ISO and IEC Standards, as well as Chinese Standards in place. India has standards
pertaining to lead-acid batteries while China and the Republic of Korea have voluntary
standards for testing of traction battery performance. Based on this mixed state of largely
voluntary standards, it is recommended that a uniform propulsion battery test procedure
be considered. It is recommended that for Lithium-ion batteries, currently available
international standards be used as references in this work, in particular ISO 12405-1 and
12405-2 which appear to be the most elaborate standards to have been released
1. Figure 32 summarizes the responses concerning market mobilization requirements
besides regulatory requirements, which were already captured in Section 3.14.
Specifically addressed are financial incentives, consumer awareness efforts, and
government purchase requirements.
Attribute Definition: Financial support provided by the government to vehicle manufacturers,
businesses, organizations, and/or consumers for the purchase of an electrified vehicle. Ensure
to describe the terms of the financial support, specifying (if appropriate) where an incentive is
applied, i.e. manufacturers, sales, infrastructure, etc.
2. As evidenced in Figure 29, financial incentives are the most widely supported market
deployment attribute across the countries and regions surveyed. These types of
incentives are generally available in some form in all countries with the exception of
India, which is said to be formulating incentives at present. The incentives are a wide mix
of purchase subsidies (all countries except India and Switzerland), and reductions or
exemptions in taxes and charges associated with owning and operating vehicles (license
fees, registration fees, ownership fees, import taxes). Numerous countries also offer
infrastructure subsidies (all except India and Switzerland), generally offered as rebates
or income tax reductions for costs associated with the installation of charging stations.
Column 1 of Figure 33 provides specific details of the programmes by country.
Attribute Definition: Education and outreach activities supported by the government to increase
awareness about electrified vehicles.
3. Consumer awareness is also generally well supported throughout the countries
surveyed. Canada and the USA are active in increasing consumer awareness and
understanding of EV technology options with multiple, extensive web-based resources,
fact sheets, calculators, and purchasing guides offered. All other countries also have
campaigns in place to create consumer awareness. Column 2 of Figure 32 provides
specific details of the programmes by country.
Attribute Definition: Requirements and/or financial incentives within government operations
incentivizing the purchase and use of electrified vehicles.
4. Government purchase requirements are also in place in many of the countries surveyed
(all except India). The Chinese government stipulates percentages of PEVs, OVC-HEVs,
and FCVs that government and public institutions are required to maintain as part of their
fleets. The USA is notable in its efforts to require the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles
both on a Federal and state-wide basis. The USA has stipulated targets both for fleet
adoption percentages as well as overall fuel consumption reductions. The Republic of
Korea also stipulates an adoption percentage of low pollution vehicles required for new
vehicle purchases made by government and public institutions. Specifically, the
government administration and public institution of the Republic of Korean require new
vehicle purchases to include 30% or greater so-called 'high efficient vehicles' (hybrid
electric vehicles, compact cars under 1,000cc, low-pollution vehicles). Most other
countries have more general policies in place encouraging the adoption of fuel efficient
vehicles. Column 3 of Figure 32 provides specific details of the programmes by country.