Regulation No. 22-05
|Name:||Regulation No. 22-05|
|Description:||Protective Helmets and Visors.|
|Official Title:||Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Protective Helmets and their Visors for Drivers and Passengers of Motorcycles and Mopeds.|
|Country:||ECE - United Nations|
|Date of Issue:||1972-06-01|
|Amendment Level:||05 Series, Supplement 3|
|Number of Pages:||101|
|Subject Categories:||Prior Versions|
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January 16, 2019
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
PROTECTIVE HELMETS AND THEIR VISORS FOR DRIVERS AND
PASSENGERS OF MOTORCYCLES AND MOPEDS
04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.03.95
Corr. 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.01.98
Corr. 2 to the 04 series of amendments
Supplement 2 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.01.00
05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 30.06.00
Corr. 1 to the 05 series of amendments
Corr. 2 to the 05 series of amendments
Corr. 3 to the 05 series of amendments
Supplement 1 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.02.02
Supplement 2 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Supplement 3 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 29.12.18
UN REGULATION NO. 22
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF PROTECTIVE
HELMETS AND OF THEIR VISORS FOR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS OF MOTORCYCLES
3. Application for approval
6. General specifications
8. Test reports
9. Product qualification
10. Conformity of production and routine tests
11. Modification and extension of approval of a helmet or a visor type
12. Penalties for non-conformity of production
13. Production definitely discontinued
14. Information for wearers
15. Transitional provisions
16. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
UN REGULATION NO. 22
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF PROTECTIVE HELMETS AND OF
THEIR VISORS FOR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS OF MOTORCYCLES AND MOPEDS
This Regulation applies to protective helmets for drivers and passengers of mopeds and of
motorcycles with or without side-car and to the visors fitted to such helmets or intended to
be added to them.
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "protective helmet" means a helmet primarily intended to protect the wearer's head
against impact. Some helmets may provide additional protection;
2.2. "shell" means the hard part of the protective helmet, which gives it its general shape;
2.3. "protective padding" means a material used to absorb impact energy;
2.4. "comfort padding" means a material provided for the wearer's comfort;
2.5. "retention system" means the complete assembly by means of which the helmet is
maintained in position on the head, including any devices for adjustment of the system or to
enhance the wearer's comfort;
2.5.1. "chin-strap" means a part of the retention system consisting of a strap that passes under
the wearer's jaws to keep the helmet in position;
2.5.2. "chin-cup" means an accessory of the chin-strap that fits round the point of the wearer's
2.6. "peak" means an extension of the shell above the eyes;
2.7. "lower face cover" means a detachable, movable or integral (permanently fixed) part of the
helmet covering the lower part of the face;
2.7.1. "protective lower face cover" means a detachable, movable or integral (permanently
fixed) part of the helmet covering the lower part of the face and intended to protect the chin
of the user against impacts;
2.7.2. "non protective lower face cover" means a detachable or movable part of the helmet
covering the lower part of the face that does not protect the chin of the user against impacts;
2.8. "visor" means a transparent protective screen extending over the eyes and covering all or
part of the face;
2.9. "goggles" mean transparent protectors that enclose the eyes;
2.21. "routine testing" means the testing of a number of helmets and/or visors selected from a
single batch to verify the extent to which they satisfy the requirements.
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. Application for Approval of a Protective Helmet Type
3.1.1. The application for approval of a protective helmet type, without or with one or more visor
types, shall be submitted by the helmet manufacturer or by the holder of the manufacturer's
name or trade mark or by his duly accredited representative, and for each type the
application shall be accompanied by the following:
188.8.131.52. Drawings in triplicate to a scale of 1:1, in sufficient detail to permit identification of the
helmet type, including the methods of assembly. The drawings shall show the position
intended for the approval mark as set out in Paragraph 184.108.40.206.,
220.127.116.11. A brief technical specification stating the materials used and a test report of the photometric
and colorimetric performances of the retro-reflective material.
18.104.22.168. If the helmet is fitted with one or more visors:
22.214.171.124.1. Drawings in triplicate to a scale of 1:1, in sufficient detail to permit identification of the visor
type and of its means of attachment to the helmet. The drawings shall show the position
intended for the approval mark as set out in Paragraph 126.96.36.199.,
188.8.131.52.2. A technical description of the visor stating the materials used, the manufacturing processes
and, where appropriate, the surface treatment,
184.108.40.206. A number of helmets, with or without visors, out of 20 samples of different sizes, sufficient to
enable all the tests specified in Paragraph 7.1. to be conducted and one helmet additionally
to be retained by the technical service responsible for conducting the approval test.
220.127.116.11. For each visor type, if any, 7 (+ 3 if optional test for mist retardant visor is carried out) visors
taken from a sample of not less than 14 (+ 6 if optional test) specimens. 6 (+ 3 if optional
test) visors shall be subjected to the tests and the seventh (or tenth if optional test) shall be
retained by the technical service responsible for conducting the approval test.
3.2. Application for Approval of a Visor Type
3.2.1. The application for approval of a visor type shall be submitted by the visor manufacturer or
by the holder of the manufacturer's name or trade mark or by his duly accredited
representative, and for each type the application shall be accompanied by the following:
18.104.22.168. Drawings in triplicate to a scale of 1:1, in sufficient detail to permit identification of the visor
type and of its means of attachment to the helmet. The drawings shall show the position
intended for the approval mark as set out in Paragraph 22.214.171.124.,
126.96.36.199. A technical description of the visor stating materials used, the manufacturing processes and,
where appropriate, the surface treatment,
188.8.131.52. List of approved helmet types to which the visor may be fitted,
5.1.4. In addition to the marks described in Paragraph 4.1.1. above, the following particulars shall
be indicated on every protective helmet conforming to a type approved under this
Regulation by means of the labels referred to in Paragraph 5.1.9. below:
184.108.40.206. An international approval mark consisting of:
220.127.116.11.1. A circle surrounding the Letter 'E' followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval,
18.104.22.168.2. The approval number followed by:
22.214.171.124.2.1. a slash and symbol:
"J" if the helmet does not have a lower face cover
"P" if the helmet has a protective lower face cover, or
"NP" if the helmet has a non protective lower face cover.
126.96.36.199.2.2. a dash followed by a production serial number. The production serial numbers shall be
continuous for all protective helmets of the types approved in the same country, and each
authority shall keep a register from which it can check that the type and production serial
188.8.131.52.3. The marking and/or symbol denoting the unsuitability of the lower face cover, if appropriate.
184.108.40.206.4. The marking on the helmet and, if appropriate, lower face cover shall be clearly legible,
indelible and resistant to wear.
5.1.5. In addition to the marks described in Paragraph 4.1.2. above, the following particulars shall
be affixed visibly and in a readily accessible place to every visor, if any, conforming to a type
approved with a helmet under this Regulation:
5.2. Approval of a Visor Type
5.2.1. Where the visors submitted in accordance with Paragraph 220.127.116.11. above meet the
requirements of Paragraphs 6.15. and 7.8. of this Regulation, approval shall be granted.
5.2.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
05) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another visor type covered by this
5.2.3. Notice of approval or of extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production
definitely discontinued of a visor type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to
the Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a form conforming
to the model in Annex 1B to this Regulation.
5.2.4. In addition to the marks prescribed in Paragraph 4.2. above, the following particulars shall
be affixed visibly and in a readily accessible place to every visor conforming to a type
approved under this Regulation:
18.104.22.168. An international approval mark consisting of:
22.214.171.124.1. The approval symbol described in Paragraph 126.96.36.199.1.
188.8.131.52.2. The approval number.
184.108.40.206.3. The symbol denoting daytime use only, if appropriate.
5.2.5. The approval mark shall be clearly legible, indelible and resistant to wear.
5.2.6. The marking shall not be placed within the main visibility area.
5.2.7. Annex 2B to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of approval mark for a
6. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
6.1. The basic construction of the helmet shall be in the form of a hard outer shell, containing
additional means of absorbing impact energy, and a retention system.
6.2. The protective helmet may be fitted with ear flaps and a neck curtain. It may also have a
detachable peak, a visor and a lower face cover. If fitted with a non protective lower face
cover the outer surface of the cover shall be marked "Does not protect chin from impacts"
and/or with the symbol shown in Figure 1 below indicating the unsuitability of the lower face
cover to offer any protection against impacts to the chin.
6.7. All external projections shall be radiused and any external projections other than
press-fasteners shall be smooth and adequately faired.
6.7.1. All external projections not more than 2 mm above the outer surface of the shell (e.g. rivet
heads) shall have a radius of a minimum of 1 mm.
6.7.2. All external projections more than 2 mm above the outer surface of the shell shall have a
radius of a minimum of 2 mm.
The latter specific requirements shall not apply if a projection satisfies the requirements in
Paragraphs 7.4.1. or 7.4.2. below.
6.8. There shall be no inward-facing sharp edges on the inside of the helmet; rigid, projecting
internal parts shall be covered with padding so that any stresses transmitted to the head are
not highly concentrated.
6.9. The various components of the protective helmet shall be so assembled that they are not
liable to become easily detached as a result of an impact.
6.10. Retention systems shall be protected from abrasion.
6.11. The helmet shall be held in place on the wearer's head by means of a retention system
which is secured under the lower jaw. All parts of the retention system shall be permanently
attached to the system or to the helmet.
6.11.1. If the retention system includes a chin-strap, the strap shall be not less than 20 mm wide
under a load of 150 N ± 5 N applied under the condition prescribed in Paragraph 7.6.2.
6.11.2. The chin strap shall not include a chin-cup.
6.11.3. Chin straps shall be fitted with a device to adjust and maintain tension in the strap.
6.11.4. Chin strap fastening and tensioning devices shall be positioned on the straps either so that
there are no rigid parts extending more than 130 mm vertically below the headform
reference plane with the helmet mounted on the appropriate sized headform, or so that the
whole of the device is between the bony projections of the undersize of the lower jaw.
6.11.5. If the retention system includes either a double-D ring or sliding bar fastening device then
means shall be provided to prevent the retention system being completely undone and also
to retain the free end of the strap when the retention system is adjusted.
6.11.6. Sliding bar and double-D ring fastening devices shall be fitted with a pulling flap to be used
for releasing the retention system. Its colour must be red and its minimum dimensions must
be 10 x 20 mm.
6.11.7. If a retention system includes a quick-release mechanism, then the method of release of this
mechanism shall be self-evident. Any levers, tabs, buttons or other components which need
to be operated to release the mechanism shall be coloured red, those parts of the rest of the
system which are visible when closed shall not be similarly coloured, and the mode of
operation shall be permanently indicated.
6.15.1. The systems of attachment of a visor to a helmet shall be such that the visor is
removable. It must be possible, to manoeuvre the visor out of the field of vision with a
simple movement of one hand. However, the latter prescription may not be required for
helmets which do not provide chin protection provided that a label is attached to the helmet
to the effect of warning the purchaser that the visor cannot be manoeuvred.
6.15.2. Angle Opening (see Annex 9)
6.15.3. Field of Vision
220.127.116.11. The visor shall not comprise any part liable to impair the user's peripheral vision as defined
in Paragraph 6.14., when the visor is in the totally opened position. Furthermore, the lower
edge of the visor shall not be situated in the downward field of vision of the user as defined
in Paragraph 6.14. when the visor is in closed position. The surface of the visor in the
peripheral field of vision of the helmet may however include:
The lower edge of the visor, provided that it is made of a material with at least the
same transmittance as the rest of the visor,
A device to allow the visor to be manoeuvred. However, if this device is situated
within the field of vision of the visor defined in Paragraph 18.104.22.168. below it shall be at
the lower edge and present a maximum height (h) of 10 mm and its width (1) shall be
such that the product (h x 1) at the most is equal to 1.5 cm . Moreover, it must be
made of a material with at least the same transmittance as the visor and it must be
free of any engraving, paint or other covering feature,
Fixings and devices to allow the visor to be manoeuvred if they are situated outside of
the field of vision of the visor and if the total surface of these parts, including devices,
if any, to allow the visor to be manoeuvred does not exceed 2 cm , possibly
distributed on each side of the field of vision.
22.214.171.124. Visors shall be free from any significant defects likely to impair the vision, such as bubbles,
scratches, inclusions, dull spots, holes, mould marks, scratches or other defects originating
from the manufacturing process in the field of vision. The light diffusion shall not exceed the
limit in accordance with Paragraph 126.96.36.199.1.2. when measured in accordance with one of
the methods specified in Annex 11.
If different results arise when this is assessed, the requirements on scattered light shall be
measured and assessed over an area 5 mm in diameter which includes the presumed
error. In addition, the regular transmittance shall not deviate by more than � 5% from the
reference value, measured in one of two sight points specified in Paragraph 188.8.131.52., at
any point within the field of vision of the visor.
184.108.40.206. Visors shall in addition be sufficiently transparent, shall not cause any noticeable distortion
of object as seen through the visor, shall be resistant to abrasion, resistant to impact and
shall not give rise to any confusion between the colour used in road traffic sign and
signals. The relative visual attenuation quotient (Q) shall not be less than:
0.80 for red and yellow signal lights;
0.60 for green signal light;
0.40 for blue signal light.
The relative attenuation quotient shall be measured by the method given in
Paragraph 220.127.116.11.1.1., before the abrasion test.
Note: When calculating the value of Q from the spectral measurements, the value in
Annex 14 shall be used. Linear interpolation of these values for steps smaller than
10 nm is permissible.
18.104.22.168. In the range 500 nm to 650 nm, the special transmittance, measured by the method given in
Paragraph 22.214.171.124.1.1., of the visor shall not be less than 0.2 � . The spectral transmittance
shall be measured before the abrasion test.
6.16.2. Reflective Parts
The total surface area and shape of the reflective part used shall be such that in each
direction, corresponding to one of the areas defined in the figure below, visibility is ensured
by a surface area of at least 18 cm of simple shape and measured by application on a
In each surface area of minimum 18 cm it shall be possible to mark:
either a circle of 40 mm diameter;
or, a rectangle at least 12.5 cm in surface area and at least 20 mm in width.
Each of these surfaces shall be situated as near as possible to the point of contact with the
shell of a vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry, to the right
and to the left, and as near as possible to the point of contact with the shell of a vertical
plane perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of symmetry, to the front and to the rear.
6.16.3. Colorimetric Test
Each of the retro-reflective areas shall emit white light when it is illuminated with a standard
illuminant A, with an observation angle of 1/3° and an illumination angle � = � = 0° (or
� = ± 5°, � = 0°); in other words: the trichromatic co-ordinates "x" and "y" of the reflected
light shall lie within the zone specified below:
limit towards blue x � 0.310
limit towards yellow x � 0.500
limit towards green y � 0.150 + 0.640x
limit towards green y � 0.440
limit towards purple y � 0.050 + 0.750x
limit towards red y � 0.382
7.2. Types of Conditioning
Prior to any type of further conditioning for mechanical tests, as specified in Paragraph 7.1.,
each helmet shall be subject to solvent conditioning.
7.2.1. Solvent Conditioning
Take a cotton cloth approximately 150 mm square and a quantity approximately 25 ml of a
solvent consisting of test liquid B in accordance with ISO 1817:1985 Using the cloth
soaked in the solvent, apply the solvent to all those regions of the outside surface of the
helmet within 50 mm of the chin strap fixings, and keep these regions wet with the solvent
for (7.5 ± 2.5) s. Repeat the procedure on the remainder of the external surface including
any chin guard, keeping these regions wet for (12.5 ± 2.5) s. Do not carry out any further
conditioning or testing during the following 30 min.
7.2.2. Ambient-temperature and Hygrometry Conditioning
The helmet shall be exposed to a temperature of 25°C ± 5°C and a relative humidity of
65% ± 5% for at least 4 hours.
7.2.3. Heat Conditioning
The helmet shall be exposed to a temperature of 50°C ± 2°C for not less than 4 hours and
not more than 6 hours.
7.2.4. Low-temperature Conditioning
The helmet shall be exposed to a temperature of -20°C ± 2°C for not less than 4 hours and
not more than 6 hours.
7.2.5. Ultraviolet-radiation Conditioning and Moisture Conditioning.
The outer surface of the protective helmet shall be exposed successively to:
126.96.36.199. ultraviolet irradiation by a 125-watt xenon-filled quartz lamp for 48 hours at a range of
188.8.131.52. spraying for 4 to 6 hours with water at ambient temperature at the rate of 1 litre per minute.
7.3. Impact-Absorption Tests
7.3.1. Description of Test
Impact absorption capacity is determined by recording against time the acceleration
imparted to a headform fitted with the helmet, when dropped in guided free fall at a specific
impact velocity upon a fixed steel anvil.
7.3.2. Apparatus (see Annex 8, Figure 1)
The test apparatus shall comprise:
An anvil rigidly fixed to a base;
A free fall guidance system;
A mobile system supporting the helmeted headform;
A metal headform fitted with a tridirectional accelerometer and a measuring
A system by which the point of impact can be brought into correspondence with the
centre of the anvil.
The base shall be made of steel or concrete or a combination of these materials and have a
mass of at least 500 kg.
It shall be so constructed that there is no significant deformation of the surface under the
No part of the base or anvil shall have a resonance frequency liable to affect the
184.108.40.206.1. The flat steel anvil shall have a circular impact face of 130 mm ± 3 mm.
220.127.116.11.2. The kerbstone anvil shall have two sides forming an angle of 105 ± 5°, each of them with a
slope of 52.5 ± 2.5° towards the vertical and meeting along a striking edge with a radius of
15 mm ± 0.5 mm. The height must be at least 50 mm and the length not less than
125 mm. The orientation is 45° to the longitudinal vertical plane at Points B, P, and R, and
45° to the base plane at Point X (front low, back up).
18.104.22.168. Mobile System and Guides
The mobile system supporting the headform shall be such that its characteristics do not
affect the measurement of acceleration at the centre of gravity of the headform. It shall also
be such that any point in the area ACDEF can be positioned vertically above the centre of
The guides shall be such that the impact velocity is not less than 95% of the theoretical
7.3.4. Selection of Points of Impact
22.214.171.124. Each test shall be carried out with 4 impacts on one helmet on the Points B, X, P and R, in
this sequence. When a helmet with a protective lower face cover is being tested then an
additional Point S shall be impacted after the four other points, but only against the anvil
specified in Paragraph 126.96.36.199.1.
188.8.131.52.1. After each impact the helmet shall be re-positioned correctly on the headform prior to the
next impact, without interfering with the adjustment of the retention system. Before each
impact on the Point S the helmet shall be re-positioned correctly on the headform and the
retention system adjusted under the chin of the headform; if the system includes an
adjustable chin strap, the strap is tightened as much as possible.
184.108.40.206. The points of impact are defined for each helmet:
B, in the frontal area, situated in the vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry of the helmet
and at an angle of 20° measured from Z above the AA' Plane.
X, in either the left or right lateral area, situated in the central transverse vertical plane
and 12.7 mm below the AA' Plane.
R, in the rear area, situated in the vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry of the helmet
and at an angle of 20° measured from Z above the AA' Plane.
P, in the area with a radius of 50 mm and a centre at the intersection of the central
vertical axis and the outer surface of the helmet shell.
S, in the lower face cover area, situated within an area bounded by a sector of 20�
divided symmetrically by the vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry of the helmet.
Impacts at Points B, X and R should be within 10 mm radius of the defined point.
7.3.5. Combination of Conditioning and Anvils
Conditioning: Solvent plus .............
Ultraviolet radiation and moisture
Flat and kerbstone
Flat or kerbstone (to be selected by the laboratory)
7.3.6. The absorption efficiency shall be considered sufficient where the resultant acceleration
measured at the centre of gravity of the headform at no time exceeds 275 g, and the Head
Injury Criterion does not exceed 2400.
The helmet shall not become detached from the headform.
A headform conforming to that referred to in Paragraph 220.127.116.11.6., and
A system which may be adjusted such that the point of impact can be brought into
correspondence with the upper part of the face of the anvil.
A means of recording the continuously changing transmitted anvil force during the
A suitable energy-absorbing base and catch net to prevent damage to the helmet
after the impact.
This shall conform to the requirements specified in Paragraph 18.104.22.168.
22.214.171.124.3.1. The anvil is mounted securely at an angle of 15� to the vertical with provision for
fore-and-aft adjustment. The anvil has a minimum width of 200 mm and is adaptable to
carry either of two different impact surfaces as follows:
126.96.36.199.3.1.1. The bar anvil consists of a series of at least 5 horizontal bars at 40 mm centres. Each bar
is made from a steel strip of height 6 mm and width 25 mm with its uppermost edge
machined to a 1 mm radius and the lower 15 mm of its face chamfered at an angle of 15�
so that, as mounted, the upper edge of each bar is fully exposed from vertically
above. The bars are case-hardened to a depth of approximately 0.5 mm.
The bar anvil should be used to assess the tangential forces and their integrals with time
caused by projections on the helmet, e.g. visor fittings, screws, press studs and steps in
the shell surface, etc.
188.8.131.52.3.1.2. The abrasive anvil is a sheet of grade 80 closed-coat aluminium oxide abrasive paper with
a minimum supported length of 225 mm and is securely clamped to the base of the anvil to
The abrasive anvil should be used to assess the tangential forces and their integrals with
time caused by friction against the outer surface of the helmet. This is particularly
applicable to selected areas of helmets, the outer surface of which either have significant
variations of curvature or are made of more than one material.
184.108.40.206.3.2. The anvil is fitted with force transducer(s) connected to recording apparatus so that the
transmitted longitudinal force component can be measured and continuously recorded with
an accuracy of � 5% during a glancing blow to any part of its exposed surface.
220.127.116.11.4. Mobile System and Guides
The mobile system supporting the headform shall be such that its characteristics do not
affect the measurement of force in the anvil. It shall also be such that any point on the
helmet can be positioned vertically above the anvil. The guides shall be such that the
impact velocity is not less than 95% of the theoretical velocity.
18.104.22.168.2. When tested against the abrasive anvil, a second helmet shall satisfy the following
22.214.171.124.2.1. the peak longitudinal force measured on the anvil shall not exceed 3,500 N, nor shall its
integral with respect to time over the duration of the impact exceed 25 Ns for any of the
selected impact points.
7.4.2. Test for Projections and Surface Friction (Method B)
126.96.36.199. Description of Test
The rotation-inducing forces caused by projections on the helmets and friction against the
outer surface of the helmets are assessed firstly by a shear impact on the projections
using a shear edge against which the projections shall shear away, be detached, or permit
the shear edge to slide past the projections. The friction is assessed by the displacement
of a carriage abrading the outer surface of the helmet. The shear impact and abrading
carriage displacement are generated by a drop weight device.
188.8.131.52.2. Positioning of the Helmets
184.108.40.206.2.1. The helmet is placed on a headform of appropriate size in accordance with the
requirements of Annex 5. The helmet is tipped towards the rear so that the front edge of
the helmet in the median plane is displaced by 25 mm; if the helmet includes an adjustable
chin strap, the strap shall be tightened as much as possible. The headform shall be so
positioned that the chosen location on the helmet can be positioned in contact with the
upper surface of the horizontal carriage.
220.127.116.11.2.2. The helmet shall be tested in any condition in which it may be placed on the market, that is
both with and without accessories if they are supplied as original equipment. Helmets
placed on the market with a visor shall be tested with the visor in the closed position.
18.104.22.168.3.1. Test of Projection
The headform is adjusted in order to have the chosen projection on the carriage so that
the shear edge is positioned 50 mm from the projection and makes lateral contact with the
projection after the drop weight is released from its upper position.
22.214.171.124.3.2. Test of Outer Surface
The abrasive paper is mounted on the carriage in the position specified in
Paragraph 126.96.36.199.2. The chosen outer surface of the helmet is lowered on to the
abrading carriage at the centre of the flat surface without abrasive paper. A loading mass
is applied in accordance with Paragraph 188.8.131.52.8. The drop weight is released from its
upper position in accordance with Paragraph 184.108.40.206.5. The abrasive paper shall be
changed after every test.
220.127.116.11.5. Drop Weight
The drop weight shall have a mass of 15.0 (- 0.0/+ 0.5) kg. For shear assessment the free
drop height shall be 500.0 (- 0.0/+ 5.0) mm with provision for further possible travel of at
least 400 mm. For testing the friction assessment the free drop height shall be
500.0 (- 0.0/+ 0.5) mm with provision for further possible travel of at least 400 mm.
18.104.22.168.6. Headform Support
The system supporting the headform shall be such that any point on the helmet can be
positioned in contact with the upper surface of the carriage.
22.214.171.124.7. Lever and Hinge
A rigid lever shall connect the headform support to the test apparatus with a hinge. The
height of the hinge pivot above the upper surface of the carriage shall not be greater than
126.96.36.199.8. Loading Mass
A loading system is used to generate a force of 400.0 (- 0.0/+ 10.0) N on the helmet
normal to the surface of the carriage. This force shall be measured before each test.
188.8.131.52.9. Verification of the Test Apparatus
With the unloaded carriage and a drop height of up to 450 mm, the velocity of the carriage
after 250 mm of travel shall be 4.0 � 0.1 m/sec. This requirement shall be verified after
every 500 helmet tests or once every 3 months whichever is sooner.
184.108.40.206. Selection of Test Points
Any point on the helmet may be selected for friction and/or shear assessment. A helmet
shall be tested as many times as necessary to ensure that all notable features are
evaluated with one test only per feature. Re-orientate the helmet as necessary to allow
every feature to be tested. For shear assessment evaluate all different external
projections greater than 2 mm above the outer surface of the shell. For friction
assessment evaluate areas of the outer surface that are likely to produce the greatest
The rim of the shell and the upper and lower edge of the visor situated within an area
bounded by a sector of 120� divided symmetrically by the vertical longitudinal plane of
symmetry of the helmet do not constitute a projection for the purpose of this test.
220.127.116.11.1. For shear assessment the tested projection shall shear away, be detached or alternatively
shall not prevent the assessment bar from sliding past the projection. In all cases the bar
on the horizontal carriage shall travel past the projection.
18.104.22.168.2. For friction assessment the abrasive carriage shall not be brought to rest by the helmet.
7.6.4. During the test, the dynamic displacement of the point of application of the force shall not
exceed 35 mm.
7.6.5. After two minutes, the residual displacement of the point of application of the force, as
measured under a mass of 15 kg ± 0.5 kg, shall not exceed 25 mm
7.6.6. Damage to the retention system shall be accepted provided that it is still possible to
remove the helmet easily from the headform. In the case of retention systems fitted with
quick release mechanisms it must be possible to release the mechanism in accordance
with Paragraphs 7.11.2. to 22.214.171.124. The specifications set out in Paragraphs 7.6.4. and
7.6.5. shall be met.
7.7. Retention (Detaching) Test
7.7.1. The helmet, previously conditioned at ambient temperature and hygrometry, is attached to
the appropriate headform, selected from those listed in Annex 4, in accordance with the
requirements of Paragraph 126.96.36.199.1 of this Regulation.
7.7.2. A device to guide and release a falling mass (the total mass being 3 kg ± 0.1 kg) is hooked
on to the rear part of the shell in the median vertical plane of the helmet, as shown in
Annex 8, Figure 3.
7.7.3. The falling mass of 10 kg ± 0.01 kg is then released and drops in a guided free fall from a
height of 0.50 m ± 0.01 m. The guiding devices shall be such as to ensure that the impact
speed is not less than 95% of the theoretical speed.
7.7.4. After the test the angle between the reference line situated on the shell of the helmet and
the reference plane of the headform shall not exceed 30°.
188.8.131.52. The test apparatus used shall be as described in Paragraph 184.108.40.206.1., the metal punch
being placed in contact with the visor in the vertical symmetrical plane of the headform to
the right of Point K. The apparatus shall be designed in such a way that the punch is
stopped not less than 5 mm above the headform.
220.127.116.11.1. The testing device mentioned in Paragraph 18.104.22.168. above shall have the following
Mass of punch
0.3 kg ± 10 g
Angle of cone forming punch head 60° ± 1°
Radius of rounded top of punch head
Mass of the drop hammer
3 kg ± 25g
22.214.171.124. When the drop-hammer falls from a height of 1 + 0,005 m, measured between the top face
of the punch and the lower face of the hammer, it shall be ascertained that:
126.96.36.199.1. no sharp splinters are produced if the visor is shattered. Any segment having an angle
less than 60° shall be considered as a sharp splinter.
7.8.3. Optical Qualities and Scratch Resistance
188.8.131.52. Test Procedure
184.108.40.206.1. The test piece shall be taken from the flattest part of the visor in the area specified in
Paragraph 220.127.116.11. and its minimum dimensions shall be 50 mm x 50 mm. The test shall
be carried out on the face corresponding to the outside of the visor.
18.104.22.168.2. The test piece shall undergo ambient-temperature and hygrometry conditioning in
accordance with Paragraph 7.2.2.
22.214.171.124.3. The test shall comprise the following sequence of operations:
126.96.36.199.3.1. The surface of the test piece shall be washed in water containing 1% detergent and rinsed
with distilled or demineralized water, then carefully dried with a grease-free and dust-free
188.8.131.52.3.2. Immediately after drying and before abrasion, the luminous transmittance shall be
measured using the method given in Paragraph 184.108.40.206.1.1., and the light diffusion shall be
measured according to one of the methods specified in Annex 11.
220.127.116.11.3.3. The test piece shall then be subjected to the abrasion test described in Annex 10, during
which 3 kg of abrasive material shall be projected at the sample.
18.104.22.168.3.4. Following the test, the test piece shall again be cleaned in accordance with
22.214.171.124.3.5. Immediately after drying the light diffusion after abrasion shall be measured by using again
the same method used in accordance with Paragraph 126.96.36.199.3.2. above.
7.10. Test for Resistance to Abrasion of the Chin Strap (see Annex 8, Figure 5)
The test shall be performed on every device in which the strap slides through a rigid part
of the retention system, with the following exceptions:
where the micro-slip test, Paragraph 7.9., shows that the strap slips less than half
the prescribed value; or
where the composition of the material used, or the information already available,
renders the test superfluous in the judgement of the technical service.
7.10.1. The test rig is similar to that described in Paragraph 7.9.1. except that the amplitude of
motion is 100 ± 10 mm and the strap passes over a representative surface of the
associated adjuster or other strap fitting through an appropriate angle.
7.10.2. Select an arrangement of the apparatus appropriate for the particular design of both the
strap and the fitting likely to cause abrasion. Grip one end of the strap in the oscillating
clamp, arrange the strap to be threaded through the fitting as designed and hang a weight
on the end to tension the strap with a force of 20 ± 1 N. Mount or otherwise steady the
fitting in such a position that movement of the oscillating clamp slides the strap through the
fitting, in a manner simulating slippage of the fitting on the strap when the helmet is on the
7.10.3. Oscillate the clamp for a total of 5000 cycles at a frequency between 0.5 and 2 Hz.
7.10.4. Mount the abraded strap in a tensile testing machine using clamps which avoid local
breakage of the strap, and so that there is a length of 150 ± 15 mm of strap, including the
abraded portion, between the clamps. Operate the machine to stretch the strap at a
speed of 100 ± 20 mm per minute.
7.10.5. The strap shall withstand a tension of 3 kN without breaking.
7.11. Tests for Retention Systems Relying on Quick-Release Mechanisms
7.11.1. Inadvertent Release by Pressure
188.8.131.52. If the retention system is designed to be released by pressure on a certain part, the
system shall not release when a rigid sphere of diameter 100 mm is pressed with a force
of 100 ± 5 N directly in the line of movement of that part.
184.108.40.206. If such a system incorporates more than one quick-release mechanism, or one such
mechanism requiring more than one operation to release it, the system shall be deemed
not to comply with this requirement if sufficient opening of the system is caused by the
pressure of the sphere on only one quick-release mechanism or for only one operation,
whichever is appropriate, to allow the release of the appropriate headform.
9. PRODUCTION QUALIFICATION
9.1. In order to make sure that the manufacturer's production system is satisfactory, the
technical service which conducted the approval tests must carry out tests to qualify
production in accordance with Paragraphs 9.2 and 9.3.
9.2. Qualifying the Production of Helmets
The production of each new approved type of helmet must be subjected to production
For this purpose, a random sample from the first batch will be taken of 40 helmets of the
largest size (50 helmets if the test on the S Point is involved) and 10 helmets of the
The first batch is considered to be the production of the first tranche containing a minimum
of 200 helmets and a maximum of 3,200 helmets.
9.2.1. Test on the System of Retention
220.127.116.11. The 10 helmets of the smallest size are subjected to the test of the retention system
described in Paragraph 7.6.2.
9.2.2. Shock Absorption Test
18.104.22.168. From the 40 helmets (50 if the S Point test is involved) take 4 (5 if the S Point test is
involved) groups each with 10 helmets.
22.214.171.124. All of the helmets in a group must first be subjected to the same conditioning treatment
and then subjected to the shock absorption test described in Paragraph 7.3. at the same
point of impact. The first group of 10 helmets will be subjected to the shock absorption
test at Point B, the second at Point X, the third at Point P, the fourth at Point R (and the
fifth at Point S if it is involved). The conditioning and the anvil for each group are chosen
by the technical department which conducted the approval tests.
126.96.36.199. The results of the tests described in Paragraphs 9.2.1. and 9.2.2. must comply with the
following two conditions:
no value shall exceed 1.1 L, and
X � 2.4 S shall not exceed L
L = the limit value prescribed for each approval test
X = the mean of the values
S = the standard deviation of the values
The value of 2.4 specified above is only valid for a series of tests applied to at least
10 helmets, tested under the same conditions.
10. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION AND ROUTINE TESTS
10.1. The helmet or visor approved under this Regulation (whether the visor is approved as
such or as forming part of the helmet), having satisfied the acceptability conditions of
production qualification, shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by
complying with the requirements set out in Paragraphs 6. and 7.
10.2. In order to verify that the conditions stated in Paragraph 10.1. have been met, appropriate
control of the production must be performed.
10.3. The holder of the approval is responsible for the conformity of production procedures and
he must in particular:
10.3.1. Ensure the existence of effective procedures so that the quality of the products can be
10.3.2. Have access to the testing equipment needed to inspect the conformity of each approved
10.3.3. Ensure that the test results are recorded and that the annexed documents remain
available for a time period of 10 years after test;
10.3.4. Analyse the results of each type of test in order to verify and ensure the stability of the
helmet or visor characteristics, making allowances for the variations of industrial
10.3.5. Ensure that for each type of helmet or visor at least those tests prescribed in
Paragraphs 10.5. and 10.6. of the present Regulation are carried out;
10.3.6. Ensure that when any samples or test pieces show non-conformity with the standard test
concerned, further samples are taken and tested. All the necessary steps must be taken
to restore conformity of the corresponding production.
10.4. The authority which has granted the approval may at any time verify the conformity control
methods applied in each production facility.
10.4.1. At every inspection, the test records and production progress records must be available to
the visiting inspector.
10.4.2. The inspector may select samples at random to be tested in the manufacturer's test
laboratory (in the case where the manufacturer has such a laboratory). The minimum
number of samples may be determined according to the results of the manufacturer's own
10.4.3. When the level of control appears unsatisfactory, or when it seems necessary to check the
validity of the tests carried out in application of Paragraph 10.4.2., the inspector must
select samples which will be sent to the technical service which conducted the approval
10.4.4. The relevant authorities may carry out all of the tests prescribed in the present Regulation.
10.5.1.4. In order to be accepted, a batch of helmets must satisfy the following conditions:
TESTS TO BE
Number of samples/
0 < N � 500 1 = 1LS + 1SS + 2MS
2 = 1LS + 1SS + 2MS
500 < N � 3200 1 = 2LS + 1SS + 2MS
2 = 2LS + 1SS + 2MS
0 < N � 1200 1 = 3LS + 2SS + 3MS
2 = 3LS + 2SS + 3MS
1200 < N � 3200 1 = 5LS + 3SS + 5MS
2 = 5LS + 3SS + 5MS
8 1 LS + 2 MS
1 LS + 2 MS
10 2 LS + 2 MS
2 LS + 2 MS
16 3 LS + 3 MS
3 LS + 3 MS
26 5 LS + 5 MS
5 LS + 5 MS
1 on SS*
1 on SS*
1 on SS*
1 on SS*
2 on SS*
2 on SS*
3 on SS*
3 on SS*
Note: LS signifies = largest size (max. 62)
MS signifies = medium size
SS signifies = smallest size (min. 50)
* = Both tests (Paragraph 7.7. before Paragraph 7.6.) are carried out on the same helmet.
The absorption of the shocks is arranged on B, X, P, R, S for the same helmet.
10.5.2.6. The continuous control of helmets is undertaken starting after the production qualification.
10.5.2.7. The test results described in Paragraph 10.5.2.4. must not exceed L, where L is the limit
value prescribed for each approval test.
10.6. Minimum Conditions for the Control of Conformity of Visors
In agreement with the relevant authorities, the holder of an approval will undertake the
control of conformity following the method of batch control (Paragraph 10.6.1.) or following
the method of continuous control (Paragraph 10.6.2.).
10.6.1. Batch Control
10.6.1.1. The holder of an approval must divide the visors into batches which are as uniform as
possible in regard to raw materials or intermediate products involved in their manufacture,
and in regard to production conditions. The numbers in a batch must not exceed 3,200
units. In agreement with the relevant authorities the tests can be carried out by the
technical service or by the holder of an approval.
10.6.1.2. For each batch, a sample must be taken in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph 10.6.1.3. The sample may be taken before the batch is complete provided the
sample is taken from a larger sample consisting of not less than 20% of the final batch
10.6.1.3. In order to be accepted, a batch of visors must satisfy the following conditions:
TESTS TO BE
0 < N � 500 1 = 4 (5*)
2 = 4 (5*)
10.6.2.3. For the production to be considered conform, the tests of continuous control shall meet the
0.8% means one visor every
1.5% means one visor taken
every 66 manufactured
TESTS TO BE CONDUCTED
Group A Group B Group C
Visor Nos. 1, 2, 3 Visor No. 4 Visor No. 5* Normal
Visor Nos. 1, 2, 3 Visor No. 4 Visor No. 5* Strengthened
Note: Additional visor(s) in the case where the visor(s) have been tested in accordance with mist
retardant for approval.
Test Group A
� Paragraph 188.8.131.52.
Recognition of light signals
� Paragraph 184.108.40.206.
� Paragraph 220.127.116.11.
� Paragraph 18.104.22.168.
Optical qualities and resistance to scratches
� Paragraph 7.8.3.
Test Group B
� Paragraph 22.214.171.124.
� Paragraph 7.8.2.
Test Group C
Mist retardant � Paragraph 126.96.36.199.
This dual sampling plan functions as follows:
If the visor tested is considered to conform, the production conforms.
If the visor does not meet the requirements, a second visor shall be taken.
If the second visor tested is considered to conform, the production conforms.
If both visors do not meet the requirements, the production does not conform and visors
which are likely to present the same failure shall be withdrawn.
Strengthened control shall replace normal control if, out of 22 visors tested consecutively,
the production has had to be withdrawn twice.
Normal control is resumed if 40 visors taken consecutively are considered to conform.
If production subjected to the strengthened control has been withdrawn on two
consecutive occasions, the provisions of Paragraph 12 are applied.
14. INFORMATION FOR WEARERS
14.1. Every protective helmet placed on the market shall bear a clearly visible label with the
following inscription in the national language, or at least one of the national languages, of
the country of destination.
This information shall contain:
"For adequate protection, this helmet must fit closely and be securely attached. Any
helmet that has sustained a violent impact should be replaced"
and, if fitted with a non protective lower face cover:
"Does not protect chin from impacts" together with the symbol indicating the unsuitability of
the lower face cover to offer any protection against impacts to the chin.
14.2. Additionally where hydrocarbons, cleaning fluids, paints, transfers or other extraneous
additions affect the shell material adversely a separate and specific warning shall be
emphasised in the above-mentioned label and worded as follows:
"'Warning' - Do not apply paint, stickers, petrol or other solvents to this helmet."
14.3. Every protective helmet shall be clearly marked with its size and its maximum weight, to
the nearest 50 grammes, as placed on the market. The maximum weight quoted should
include all the accessories that are supplied with the helmets, within the packaging, as it is
placed on the market, whether or not those accessories have actually been fitted to the
14.4. Every protective helmet offered for sale shall bear a label showing the type or types of
visor that have been approved at the manufacturer's request.
14.5. Every visor offered for sale shall bear a label showing the types of protective helmet for
which it has been approved.
14.6. Every visor placed on the market with a protective helmet shall be accompanied by
information in the national language, or in at least one of the national languages, of the
country of destination. This information shall contain:
14.6.1. General Instruction for Storage and Care
14.6.2. Specific instructions for cleaning and their notice of use. These instructions shall include a
warning regarding the dangers of using unsuitable agents for cleaning (such as solvents),
especially if abrasion resistant coatings are to be preserved.
14.6.3. Advice as to the suitability of the visor for use in conditions of poor visibility and during the
hours of darkness. The following warning shall be included:
188.8.131.52. Visors with the marking indicating "daytime use only" are not suitable for use during the
hours of darkness or in conditions of poor visibility.
16. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible
for conducting approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval
and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, or
production definitely discontinued, issued in other countries, are to be sent.
13. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: .................................................
14. Date of report issued by that service: ......................................................................................
15. Number of report issued by that service: .................................................................................
16. Comments: ..............................................................................................................................
17. Approval granted/extended/refused/withdrawn ...................................................................
18. Place: .......................................................................................................................................
19. Date: ........................................................................................................................................
20. Signature: ................................................................................................................................
21. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are available on
15. Place: .......................................................................................................................................
16. Date: ........................................................................................................................................
17. Signature: ................................................................................................................................
18. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are available on
EXAMPLE OF THE ARRANGEMENT OF APPROVAL MARK
FOR A VISOR FITTED TO A PROTECTIVE HELMET
(See Paragraph 5.1. of this Regulation)
The above approval mark affixed to a visor shows that the visor concerned has been approved in the
Netherlands (E4) under reference FX2, and that it forms an integral part of an approved helmet.
The visor reference shall be placed close to the circle and either above or below the Letter "E" or to the
left or right of that letter. The reference symbols shall face the same direction. The use of numerals
alone for the reference should be avoided so as to prevent any confusion with other symbols.
DIAGRAM OF PROTECTIVE HELMET
Peripheral Vision � Horizontal Field
POSITIONING OF THE HELMET ON THE HEADFORM
1. The helmet is placed on a headform of appropriate size. A load of 50 N is applied on the
crown of the helmet in order to adjust the helmet on the headform. It is ascertained that
the vertical median plane of the helmet coincides with the median vertical plane of the
2. The front edge of the helmet is placed against a gauge to check the minimum angle for the
upward field of vision. The following points are then checked:
2.1. that the line AC and the ACDEF zone are covered by the shell (Annex 4, Figure 1),
2.2. that the requirements for the minimum downward angle and the horizontal field of vision
2.3. Requirements of Paragraph 6.4.2 of this Regulation relating to the rear projection should
3. If one of these conditions is not met, the helmet is moved slightly from front to rear to seek
a position where all the requirements are met. Once such a position is determined, a
horizontal line is drawn on the shell at the level of the AA' Plane. This horizontal line shall
determine the reference plane for the positioning of the helmet during the tests.
Headform � Drop Assembly
Example of a Suitable Test Apparatus for Projections and Surface Friction
Retention (Detaching) Test Apparatus
Apparatus for Testing Abrasion of the Chin Strap
ABRASION TEST PROCEDURE
1. DESCRIPTION OF THE TEST EQUIPMENT
The sand spray test equipment consists essentially of that illustrated in Figure 1. The
gravity tube consists of three separate rigid polyvinylchloride tubes (PVC hard) of the
same diameter, with two polyamide sieves mounted in between. The sieves should have
a mesh size of 1.6 mm. The speed of the turntable shall be 250 ± 10 rpm.
2. ABRASIVE MATERIAL
Natural quartz sand of a grain size of 0.50/0.7 mm, with no oversize, obtained by sieving
on wire sieves complying with ISO 565 with a mesh size of 0.50 mm and 0.7 mm. The
sand may be used up to 10 times.
3. TEST PROCEDURE
Three kilograms of 0.50/0.7 mm grain size quartz sand is allowed to drop through a gravity
tube from a height of 1.650 mm onto the sample to be tested. The test piece and, if
necessary, a control-piece are mounted on a turntable, the axis of which is at a 45� angle
to the direction of the sand.
The test pieces are mounted on the turntable in such a way that the area to be measured
does not extend beyond the turntable. Whilst the turntable is rotating, 3 kg of sand are
allowed to spray over the test pieces.
METHODS OF MEASURING LIGHT DIFFUSION AND LIGHT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT
1. METHOD (a)
This assembly collects all the unscattered light originating from the visor up to an angle of
0.72 degree (using Diaphragm B ) and all scattered light between the angles 1.5 degrees
and 2 degrees in relation to the optical axis using Diaphragm B . The angular area is
important in the case of night riding, where a range in the immediate proximity of
headlights has to be observed. The following dimensions are an information for the
L High-pressure xenon lamp (for example XB0 75 W)
U , U
Spherical concave mirror: focal length 150 mm; diameter 40 mm
Spherical concave mirror: focal length 300 mm; diameter 40 mm
Spherical concave mirror: focal length 300 mm; diameter 70 mm
Achromatic lens: focal length 200 mm; diameter 30 mm
Annular diaphragm: diameter of outer circle 21.00 mm; diameter of inner circle 15.75 mm
Circular diaphragm: diameter of aperture 7.5 mm
Silicon detector corrected according to curve V (�) with diffusing screen MS
The non-transparent central part of the diaphragm is necessary to eliminate the light
arriving directly from the light source. It must be possible to move the central part of the
diaphragm away from the light beam in such a manner that it returns exactly to its original
The distance between the Lens L and the Diaphragm D , and the focal length F of the
Lens L are to be chosen so that the image of D completely covers the receiver R.
For an initial incident flux of 1,000 units, the absolute precision of each reading shall be
better than 1 unit.
The following reading shall be taken:
Part of D
T no no Incident flux in initial reading
Flux transmitted by the new material
T no yes Incident light flux with central part of D
2.3. Optical Quantities Definitions
2.3.1. The luminous transmittance is given by:
(T /T ) x 100
2.3.2. The light diffusion before abrasion is given by:
DB = (T - T ) x 100/T
2.3.3. The light diffusion after abrasion is given by:
DA = (T /T ) x 100.
Flux diffused by the new material
Flux diffused by the abraded material
Markings DA and DB correspond to Paragraph 1.3. of this Annex.
The part of the test arrangement, comprising the diaphragms, the lens and the receptor is
designed to rotate about the vertical axis through the centre of the ocular.
The ocular and the detector part of the apparatus has to pivot in order to compensate for
any prismatic refractive power of the ocular.
Note 2: For oculars without corrective effect, it is not necessary, in most cases, for the
ocular and the detector part to pivot.
3.2.1. Calibration of the Apparatus
Set up the apparatus, the essential features of which are shown in Figure 3, without the
ocular in place. Put the annular Diaphragm B in place. Rotate the detector part of the
apparatus (consisting of a photoreceptor S, a Lens A and the annular Diaphragm B )
horizontally about P so as to align the light beam from the beam expander (consisting of a
Lens L , with a typical focal length of 10 mm, a Lens L with a typical focal length of 30 mm
and a circular Diaphragm B with a pinhole of sufficient size so as to provide a uniform beam)
with the centre of the annular Diaphragm B . Measure the flux � falling onto the
photoreceptor S, corresponding to the total non-diffused light. Replace the annular
Diaphragm B by the circular Diaphragm B .
Measure the flux � falling onto the photoreceptor, corresponding to the total non-diffused
Obtain the reduced luminance factor for the apparatus, I , for the solid angle � using the
is the luminance flux without the visor in the parallel beam and with the
annular Diaphragm B in place
is the luminance flux without the visor in the parallel beam and with circular
Diaphragm B in place
is the solid angle defined by the annular Diaphragm B
B = Circular diaphragm � (a hole of 0.1 mm approx produces a uniform light beam)
P = Visor sample
Annular diaphragm, the diameter of the external circle being (28.0 � 0.1) mm and
the inner circle (21.0 � 0.1) mm. See Note 2 below.
B = Circular diaphragm of 10 mm nominal diameter
A = Lens, 200 mm nominal focal length and 30 mm nominal diameter
S = Photoreceptor
The distance between the annular/circular diaphragm and the centre of the ocular shall be
(400 � 2) mm.
Note 1: The focal lengths of the lenses are only given as a guide. Other focal lengths may
be used, for example, if a wider beam is desired or a smaller image of the sample
is to be formed on the receptor.
Note 2: The diameters of the annular diaphragm circles shall be measured to an
uncertainty not exceeding 0.01 mm in order that the solid angle � may be
determined accurately; any deviation from the nominal diameters shall be taken
into account by calculation.
(1) To be carried out at the same technical service or the same accredited independent laboratory.
(2) Visit of the manufacturer for inspection and random sampling by the authority or technical service:
(a) If there is no ISO 9002 or an equivalent standard: 1 times a year
(b) If there is an ISO 9002 or an equivalent standard: 1 time every 1 to 2 years, depending on
the results of the inspection.
(3) Tests in accordance to Paragraph 10.5 and/or 10.6 on samples taken out of the production:
(a) If there is no ISO 9002 : of the authority or technical service during the visit of Footnote 2a)
of the manufacturer between the visits of Footnote 2a)
If there is an ISO 9002 : taken by the manufacturer, procedure checked during visit of
PRODUCTS OF THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF RADIATION OF THE SIGNAL
LIGHTS AND STANDARD ILLUMINANT D65 AS SPECIFIED IN ISO/CIE 10526 AND
THE SPECTRAL VISIBILITY FUNCTION OF THE AVERAGE HUMAN EYE FOR
DAYLIGHT VISION AS SPECIFIED IN ISO/CIE 10527
(�) V(�) � (�)
red yellow green blue
380 0 0 0 0,0001 0
390 0 0 0 0,0008 0,0005
400 0 0 0,0014 0,0042 0,0031
410 0 0 0,0047 0,0194 0,0104
420 0 0 0,0171 0,0887 0,0354
430 0 0 0,0569 0,3528 0,0952
440 0 0 0,1284 0,8671 0,2283
450 0 0 0,2522 1,5961 0,4207
460 0 0 0,4852 2,6380 0,6888
470 0 0 0,9021 4,0405 0,9894
480 0 0 1,6718 5,9025 1,5245
490 0 0 2,9976 7,8862 2,1415
500 0 0 5,3553 10,1566 3,3438
510 0 0 9,0832 13,0560 5,1311
520 0 0,1817 13,0180 12,8363 7,0412
530 0 0,9515 14,9085 9,6637 8,7851
540 0 3,2794 14,7624 7,2061 9,4248
550 0 7,5187 12,4687 5,7806 9,7922
560 0 10,7342 9,4061 3,2543 9,4156
570 0 12,0536 6,3281 1,3975 8,6754
580 0,4289 12,2634 3,8967 0,8489 7,8870
590 6,6289 11,6601 2,1640 1,0155 6,3540
TEST OF REFRACTIVE POWERS
1. SPHERICAL AND ASTIGMATIC REFRACTIVE POWERS
A telescope with an aperture nominally 20 mm and a magnification between 10 and 30, fitted
with an adjustable eyepiece incorporating a reticular.
1.1.2. Illuminated target
A target, consisting of a black plate incorporating the cut-out pattern shown in Figure 1, behind
which is located a light source of adjustable luminance with a condenser, if necessary, to focus
the magnified image of the light source on the telescope objective.
The large annulus of the target has an outer diameter of 23 � 0.1 mm with an annular aperture
of 0.6 � 0.1 mm. The small annulus has an inner diameter of 11.0 � 0.1 mm with annular
aperture of 0.6 � 0.1 mm. The central aperture has a diameter of 0.6 � 0.1 mm. The bars are
nominally 20 mm long and 2 mm wide with a nominal 2 mm separation.
A filter with its maximum transmittance in the green part of the spectrum may be used to
reduce chromatic aberrations.
1.1.4. Calibration Lenses
Lenses with positive and negative spherical refractive powers of 0.06 m , 0.12 m and 0.25 m
(tolerance � 0.01 m ).
These distance in cm are divided by 2 to give the horizontal and vertical prismatic difference in
If the light paths which correspond to the two eye regions cross, the prismatic refractive power
is 'base in' and if the light paths do not cross, it is 'base out'.
Arrangement Apparatus for Measurement of Prismatic Difference
L = light source, for example, small filaments lamp, laser with wavelength of 600 � 70 nm, etc.
interface filter, with peak transmittance in the green part of the spectrum (required only if a
filament lamp is used as the light source).
L = achromatic lens focal length between 20 and 50 mm.
diaphragm, diameter of aperture 1 mm nominal
P = visor
diaphragm as shown in Detail A
L = achromatic lens, 1,000 nominal focal length and 75 mm nominal diameter
B = image plane
To measure the change in the value of the transmittance � the sample is placed on the seating
ring and the time determined until the square of � has dropped to less than 80% of the initial
value of the sample without fogging (time without fogging).
is the luminous flux when there is fogging on the sample
is the luminous flux before fogging
Initial fogging of maximum 0.5 s duration shall not be taken into consideration in the evaluation.
Note 1: Since the light beam passes through the samples twice, this measurement defines
Note 2: The period until the start of the fogging can usually be determined visually. However,
with some types of coating the formulation of the surface water causes diffusion to
increase more slowly so that visual evaluation is difficult. The detection apparatus
described in Paragraph 1.1. should then be used.
Test Apparatus for Mist-retardant Visor