Latest Articles

May 2022
Draft EU Regulations on the Type Approval of Fully Automated Vehicles Published

The European Commission have recently published two draft EU Regulations which pave the way for the more widespread deployment of fully automated vehicles in Europe. One ...

April 2022
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Issued a Request for Comments (RFC) Regarding Adding Additional Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) Plus Other Updates

NHTSA published in the Federal Register a Request for Comments (RFC) on proposed actions to the NCAP (New Car Assessment Program). These actions include adding four new ...

March 2022
Draft EU Regulation on Administrative Fines for Type Approval Non-Compliance Published

EU Regulation No. 2018/858 introduced provisions which require the European Commission to carry out compliance verification activities on vehicles and components that are ...

2022

February 2022
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Issued a Final Rule Creating FMVSS 227 – Bus Rollover Structural Integrity

On December 29, 2021 NHTSA published in the Federal Register a Final Rule (FR) establishing FMVSS 227 - Bus Rollover Structural Integrity. This FR ensures that bus roofs ...

January 2022
Scope of UN ECE Regulation on Tyre Pressure Monitoring Systems Extended

On December 17, 2021, the 01 Series of Amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 141 on Tyre Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) were formally published. The mandatory fitment ...

2021

December 2021
EU Regulation on Intelligent Speed Assistance Systems Published

On November 17, 2021, new European Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1958 on Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) systems was published. The fitment of ISA systems ...

November 2021
EU and UN ECE Develop New Regulations on Event Data Recorders

In recent weeks, there have been some important developments in both the European Union (EU) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) regarding new ...

October 2021
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Proposed New Rule to Revise 2023 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Standards

The EPA issued a proposal in the August 10, 2021 Federal Register to increase the stringency of GHG Emission and Fuel Economy on Light Vehicles. Near term actions are for ...

September 2021
EU Regulation on Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning Systems Published

On August 16, 2021, new European Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1341 on Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning (DDAW) systems was published. The fitment of ...

August 2021
Two New ECE Regulations to Protect Vulnerable Road Users Published

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) have recently published two new UN ECE Regulations covering systems which are intended to assist drivers in ...

July 2021
Draft EU Regulation on Type Approval Market Surveillance Requirements Published

On June 8, 2021, the European Commission published a new draft EU Implementing Regulation for EU Regulation No. 2018/858 on the approval and market surveillance of motor ...

June 2021
NHTSA Seeks To Repeal The Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Part One: One National Program

Published in the May 12, 2021 Federal Register, a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposes to fully repeal the regulatory text and appendices promulgated in the "The ...

May 2021
EU Regulation on Emergency Lane Keeping Systems Published

The mandatory fitment of Emergency Lane Keeping Systems (ELKS) is one of the new safety features required by EU Regulation 2019/2144, and to support the introduction of ...

April 2021
New UN ECE Regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems Published

On March 4, 2021, new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 157-00 on automated lane keeping systems was officially published. This new ...

March 2021
Draft EU Regulation on Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning Systems Published

The mandatory fitment of Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning (DDAW) systems is one of the new safety features mandated by EU Regulation 2019/2144, and to support the ...

February 2021
New Chinese Standards on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Published

The Chinese Government have published three new standards which specifically cover advanced driver assistance systems. Chinese standard GB/T 39263-2020 specifies terms ...

January 2021
NHTSA Seeks Additional Input for Development of a Framework for Automated Driving System (ADS) Safety

As noted in the InterRegs December Bulletin, NHTSA had authored an ANPRM on Automated Driving Systems that was to be released in the Federal Register soon. In the ...

2020

December 2020
Updates to UN ECE Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems Published

Since the publication of the original version of UN ECE Regulation No. 152 on advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) for M1 and N1 category vehicles, the Informal ...

November 2020
New Australian Road Vehicle Standards Legislation Published

In preparation for the mandatory implementation of the Australian Road Vehicle Standards Act 2018, on September 30, 2020, the Australian Government published a new 03 ...

October 2020
The NHTSA/DOT issue Interim Final Rule and Request for Comments Regarding Delay of FMVSS 141 Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

NHTSA has published an Interim Final Rule along with a Request for Comments in response to a petition asking for relief in meeting phase-in and full compliance dates for ...

September 2020
EU Proposes Revisions to the Post 2020 Average CO2 Monitoring Requirements for Light Duty Vehicles

As specified in Regulation (EU) 2019/631, the average CO2 emissions targets applicable to passenger car and light commercial vehicle manufacturers will switch from being ...

August 2020
New UN ECE Regulations on Cyber Security and Software Updates Adopted

At the 181st session of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in June 2020, two new ...

July 2020
New Chinese Standards on Electric Vehicles and Batteries Published

As part of an exercise to update the safety requirements applicable to electrically powered vehicles, China has recently published three new Chinese standards. GB 38031- ...

June 2020
Updates to ECE Regulation on Lighting Installation Adopted

At the 180th session of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in March 2020, an 07 ...

May 2020
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposes Revisions to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs) to Accommodate Automated Driving Systems (ADS)

In the March 30th Federal Register (Vol. 85; No.61) the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a proposal to modify many of the 200 Series ...

April 2020
Taiwan Delays the Introduction Dates for Certain New Safety Requirements

In January 2020, the Taiwanese Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) issued an updated version of their Motor Vehicle Safety Testing Regulations which ...

March 2020
USDOT Expands Autonomous Vehicle Support and Requests Comments

The Office of the Secretary for the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) issued Automated Vehicles 4.0: Ensuring American Leadership in Automated Vehicle ...

February 2020
New ECE Regulation on Blind Spot Information Systems Published

On January 13, 2020, a new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on Blind Spot Information Systems for the detection of bicycles, ECE ...

January 2020
New EU General Safety Regulation Published

The long awaited new EU General Safety Regulation was finally published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 16th December 2019 as EU Regulation No. 2019/2144 ...

2019

December 2019
EU Regulation on Aerodynamic Devices for Trucks and Trailers Published

On November 12, 2019, a new EU Regulation was published which introduced amendments to EU Regulation No. 1230/2012 on the type approval requirements for masses and ...

November 2019
NHTSA Issues an Advanced Proposal for the Addition of a Seat Belt Use Warning System for Rear Seats

On September 27, 2019 (FR Vol. 84 No. 188) the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) (Docket ...

October 2019
NHTSA Issues an NPRM to allow more Flexibility in the Pedestrian Alert Sounds of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

On September 17, 2019 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety ...

September 2019
New EU Regulation on CO2 Emissions Targets for Heavy Duty Vehicles Published

On July 25, 2019, a new European Union Regulation specifying CO2 emissions reduction targets for heavy duty vehicles, EU Regulation No. 2019/1242, was published in the ...

August 2019
New UN ECE Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems Adopted

At the 178th session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in June 2019, a new UN ECE Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS ...

July 2019
US Federal Agencies are Continuing to Pursue Rulemaking related to Autonomous Vehicles

On May 28, 2019 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) and is seeking public comment on ...

June 2019
Draft Amendments to EU Regulation on Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Published

On 17th May 2019, the European Commission published a draft Regulation introducing "Step E" of the Euro VI heavy duty emissions requirements. The two main amendments ...

May 2019
Major Revisions to UN ECE Regulations on Lamps and Reflectors Adopted

At its recent 177th session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) adopted three new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) ...

April 2019
New Australian Road Vehicle Standards Legislation Published

A number of significant changes to the Australian legislative requirements regarding the importation and first provision of road vehicles and their components have been ...

March 2019
Draft EU Regulation on Aerodynamic Devices for Trucks and Trailers Published

On 30th January 2019, the European Commission published a draft Regulation proposing amendments to EU Regulation No. 1230/2012 on the type approval requirements for ...

February 2019
Updates to EU and UK Type Approval Requirements Published to Cover Brexit

The UK's impending departure from the European Union will have implications on the application and acceptability of European Union type approvals issued to passenger cars ...

January 2019
Updated ECE Requirements on Airbag Warning Labels Proposed

At the November session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), an 08 series of amendments to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ( ...

2018

December 2018
ECE Regulation on Steering Updated to Cover Further Automatically Commanded Steering Functions

On 2nd November 2018, an 03 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 79 was published. This follows on from the previous 02 series of amendments to United Nations ...

November 2018
The U.S. DOT Issued a Notice of Request for Comments on newly issued autonomous vehicle guidelines - Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0 (AV 3.0)

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued a Notice of Request for Comments on a newly issued autonomous vehicles document: The DOT has issued an update to ...

October 2018
ECE Adopts Updated Requirements on Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems for Light Duty Vehicles

The World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) has recently adopted a proposed Supplement 7 to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) ...

September 2018
China Introduces Reduced Fuel Consumption Limits for Heavy Duty Vehicles

The Chinese government have recently published an updated version of the Chinese Standard specifying the maximum permissible fuel consumption limits for heavy duty ...

August 2018
New EU Regulation on Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions Monitoring Published

As part of the European Union's plans to implement a CO2 emissions reduction regime for heavy duty vehicles, on 9th July 2018, a new EU Regulation on the monitoring and ...

July 2018
New EU Type Approval Framework Regulation Published

On 14th June 2018, the new EU Regulation on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical ...

June 2018
EU Proposes New Regulation to Repeal and Replace (EC) No. 661/2009

On 17th May 2018, the European Commission published a draft new EU Regulation that will repeal and replace EC Regulation No. 661/2009 on the type approval requirements ...

May 2018
The FMCSA issues a Request for Comments to Identify Regulatory Barriers to Introducing Automated Driving Systems on Commercial Motor Vehicles in Interstate Commerce

This month's Spotlight article highlights another opportunity for stakeholder input for revising current regulations and/or drafting new ones regarding autonomous ...

April 2018
New Brazilian Resolution on Side Impact Protection Published

In January 2018, the Brazilian National Traffic Council (CONTRAN) published a new Resolution covering vehicle occupant protection requirements in the event of a side ...

March 2018
Draft ECE Regulation on International Whole Vehicle Type Approval (IWVTA) Adopted

In November 2017, at their 173rd session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) finally adopted the new United Nations Economic Commission for ...

February 2018
The NHTSA and the FHWA Issue Requests for Comments / Information to Identify Regulatory Barriers to Introducing Automated Driving Systems

Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) are increasingly being tested and introduced onto the public roadways. Although predicted by most to save lives and decrease injuries ...

January 2018
EU Proposes Mandatory Fitment of Onboard Fuel Consumption Measuring Devices

On 12th December 2017, the European Commission published a draft Regulation proposing the mandatory fitment of onboard fuel consumption measuring devices to all light ...

2017

December 2017
EU Proposes Post 2020 CO2 Emissions Targets for Light Duty Vehicles

The European Commission have recently published a draft Regulation proposing average CO2 emissions targets to be applied to light duty vehicles for the period beyond 2020 ...

November 2017
NHTSA and the U.S. DOT Update Voluntary Guidance Policy for Automated Vehicles

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are continuing their quest to support the introduction of ...

October 2017
EU Updates Requirements on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS)

EU Regulation No. 2017/1576, which was published on 19th September 2017, amends EU Regulation No. 540/2014 on the sound levels produced by motor vehicles to introduce new ...

September 2017
ECE Clarifies Anti-Lock Brake System Deactivation Switch Requirements for Motorcycles

On 26th July 2017, an 04 series of amendments to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 78 covering the braking requirements for all L ...

August 2017
New EU Regulations on Light Duty Vehicle Emissions Published

On 7th July 2017, five important new EU Regulations on light duty vehicle emissions were published in the Official Journal of the European Union. These new EU Regulations ...

July 2017
Updated ECE Requirements on Automatically Commanded Steering Functions Proposed

To address the rapid development and deployment of advanced driver assistance systems that has occurred in the last couple of years, the World Forum for Harmonisation of ...

June 2017
Amendments to EU Requirements on Access to Repair and Maintenance Information Proposed

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 11th May 2017, the European Commission presented draft amendments to both the light duty vehicle and heavy ...

May 2017
Draft Indian Standard on New Mandatory Safety Features Published

In October 2016, the Indian Ministry of Transport and Highways published a proposal to mandate the fitment of speed warning devices, safety belt reminders, manual ...

April 2017
Expanded ECE Requirements on Safety Belt Reminder Fitment Proposed

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 16 on safety belts and restraints systems currently mandates the fitment of a safety belt reminder ...

March 2017
European Commission Guidance Document on "Defeat Devices" Published

To address the highly publicised "emissions scandal", the European Commission have instigated a number of changes to the European Union's legal requirements on emissions ...

February 2017
EU Regulation on the Technical Requirements for eCall Systems Published

Following the publication of EU Regulation No. 2015/758, which mandated the fitment of in-vehicle eCall systems to all new types of M1 and N1 category vehicle from 31st ...

January 2017
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Reduce the Risk of Pedestrian Crashes by Establishing Minimum Sound Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Listen for those electric and hybrid vehicles -- soon to be heard. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Final Rule on December 14, 2016 ...

May 2022

Draft EU Regulations on the Type Approval of Fully Automated Vehicles Published

The European Commission have recently published two draft EU Regulations which pave the way for the more widespread deployment of fully automated vehicles. The first of these draft Regulations specifies proposed amendments to (EU) 2018/858 on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers which would permit the European Small Series Type Approval of fully automated vehicles. The second draft Regulation is a new Implementing Regulation proposing uniform procedures and technical specifications for the type approval of the automated driving systems of fully automated motor vehicles.

The development of these two draft Regulations was prompted by Article 11 of EU Regulation No. 2019/2144 (General Safety Regulation 2 or GSR 2) which directed the European Commission to adopt provisions which would permit the type approval of automated and fully automated vehicles. To assist in generating the necessary provisions and technical requirements for fully automated vehicles, the European Commission set up a specific Sub Group of their Motor Vehicle Working Group (MVWG) and, between December 2020 and March 2022, this MVWG Sub Group met 13 times.

The draft EU Delegated Regulation proposing amendments to (EU) 2018/858 on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers was published for public consultation on March 22, 2022, with the reference Ares(2022)2077610. For fully automated vehicles, the key points contained within this draft Delegated Regulation can be summarised as follows:

  •  Provisions to allow the European Small Series Type Approval (EUSSTA) of fully automated M and N category vehicles are added. (Note: An EUSSTA allows the manufacturer to register up to 1,500 vehicles per calendar year within the European Union)
     
  •  A new table is added into (EU) 2018/858 specifying the requirements applicable to fully automated vehicles produced in small series, with different requirements being applicable depending on which of the following three categories the vehicle falls into:
     
    •  Fully automated N category vehicles, i.e. goods vehicles, that are not designed to accommodate any occupants.
       
    • Fully automated M and N category vehicles, i.e. passenger vehicles and goods vehicles, that are designed to accommodate occupants.
       
    • Dual mode vehicles, that are equipped with both a fully automated driving mode and a manual driving mode.
       
  • The table specifies where exemption from the type approval requirements applicable to traditional "manual driving mode" motor vehicles is permitted for fully automated vehicle, depending on which of the above categories they fall into.

The draft EU Implementing Regulation proposing uniform procedures and technical specifications for the type approval of the automated driving systems of fully automated motor vehicles was published for public consultation on April 7, 2022, with the reference Ares(2022)2667391. The scope of this draft Regulation is limited to the following "use cases":

  • Fully automated vehicles operating in a predefined area in an urban or suburban environment.
     
  • Fully automated vehicles or dual mode vehicles operating on a predefined route, with fixed start and end points, which may include urban, suburban or motorway environments.
     
  • Dual mode vehicles with a fully automated driving mode for parking applications within predefined parking facilities.

Annex 2 of the draft Regulation specifies the performance requirements that an automated driving system must comply with, including requirements on the following:

  • Dynamic driving task in nominal conditions - Specifying how the automated driving system must react and perform in normal driving conditions.
     
  • Dynamic driving task in emergency conditions - Specifying how the automated driving system must react and perform in emergency conditions.
     
  • Operational Design Domain (ODD) - Specifying how the automated driving system must react and perform if the vehicle goes outside its Operational Design Domain (ODD).
     
  • Failure conditions - Specifying how the automated driving system must react and perform if the there is a fault or failure in the automated driving system.
     
  • Minimum risk manoeuvre - Specifying that the vehicle must always be capable of safely bringing the vehicle to a halt in a safe position.
     
  • Cybersecurity - Specifying that the automated driving system must comply with the requirements of UN ECE Regulation No. 155.00 on cybersecurity.
     
  • Software updates - Specifying that the procedures and processes for any software updates must comply with the requirements of UN ECE Regulation No. 156.00 on software updates.
     
  • Data Recording - Specifying the data which must be recorded by the automated driving system and by the Event Data Recorder (EDR).

Annex 3 of the draft Regulation specifies the compliance assessment processes that must be undertaken on the automated driving system by the Technical Service to confirm its compliance with the performance requirements specified in Annex 2. Whilst this Annex does specify a number of test procedures to which the fully automated vehicle must be subjected to demonstrate compliance with the performance requirements, due to the complexities of automated driving systems, these physical testing requirements are supplemented with some additional compliance assessments.

As part of the type approval application, the manufacturer must compile documentation detailing the design and operation of the automated driving system, its “safety concept” and the safety management system operated by the manufacturer to demonstrate that thorough consideration of functional and operational safety has been applied throughout the design and development of the system. This documentation will be reviewed by the Technical Service and assessed for compliance with criteria specified in Annex 3 of the draft Regulation.

Recognising that it is not practical, or even possible, for the manufacturer to physically test the fully automated driving system in every possible traffic scenario, e.g. vehicle speeds, weather conditions, ambient lighting conditions, etc., the use of virtual testing techniques by the manufacturer is recognised as an acceptable method of validating the performance of the system. However, as part of the compliance assessment, the virtual testing tools used by the manufacturer will be reviewed by the Technical Service and assessed for compliance with criteria specified in Annex 3 of the draft Regulation.

Finally, the manufacturer is required to provide the relevant Technical Service, Type Approval Authority, Market Surveillance Authority and the European Commission with data regarding any issues that occur with their fully automated vehicles once they have been placed into service. If the vehicle is involved in a collision event which causes injury or significant physical damage to one of the vehicles involved in the collision event, this must be reported immediately. Other issues must be reported on a monthly or yearly basis, depending of the severity of the issue. Annex 3 to the draft Regulation specifies details on the severity classification of different issues.

Nick Bowyer