Latest Articles

December 2017
EU Proposes Post 2020 CO2 Emissions Targets for Light Duty Vehicles

The European Commission have recently published a draft Regulation proposing average CO2 emissions targets to be applied to light duty vehicles for the period beyond 2020 ...

November 2017
NHTSA and the U.S. DOT Update Voluntary Guidance Policy for Automated Vehicles

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are continuing their quest to support the introduction of ...

October 2017
EU Updates Requirements on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS)

EU Regulation No. 2017/1576, which was published on 19th September 2017, amends EU Regulation No. 540/2014 on the sound levels produced by motor vehicles to introduce new ...

2017

September 2017
ECE Clarifies Anti-Lock Brake System Deactivation Switch Requirements for Motorcycles

On 26th July 2017, an 04 series of amendments to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 78 covering the braking requirements for all L ...

August 2017
New EU Regulations on Light Duty Vehicle Emissions Published

On 7th July 2017, five important new EU Regulations on light duty vehicle emissions were published in the Official Journal of the European Union. These new EU Regulations ...

July 2017
Updated ECE Requirements on Automatically Commanded Steering Functions Proposed

To address the rapid development and deployment of advanced driver assistance systems that has occurred in the last couple of years, the World Forum for Harmonisation of ...

June 2017
Amendments to EU Requirements on Access to Repair and Maintenance Information Proposed

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 11th May 2017, the European Commission presented draft amendments to both the light duty vehicle and heavy ...

May 2017
Draft Indian Standard on New Mandatory Safety Features Published

In October 2016, the Indian Ministry of Transport and Highways published a proposal to mandate the fitment of speed warning devices, safety belt reminders, manual ...

April 2017
Expanded ECE Requirements on Safety Belt Reminder Fitment Proposed

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 16 on safety belts and restraints systems currently mandates the fitment of a safety belt reminder ...

March 2017
European Commission Guidance Document on "Defeat Devices" Published

To address the highly publicised "emissions scandal", the European Commission have instigated a number of changes to the European Union's legal requirements on emissions ...

February 2017
EU Regulation on the Technical Requirements for eCall Systems Published

Following the publication of EU Regulation No. 2015/758, which mandated the fitment of in-vehicle eCall systems to all new types of M1 and N1 category vehicle from 31st ...

January 2017
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Reduce the Risk of Pedestrian Crashes by Establishing Minimum Sound Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Listen for those electric and hybrid vehicles -- soon to be heard. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Final Rule on December 14, 2016 ...

2016

December 2016
New UN ECE Regulations Created Due to "Splitting" of Existing Regulations

At their 169th session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), formally adopted three new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE ...

November 2016
Further Draft European Union Regulation on Real Driving Emissions Published

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 3rd October 2016, the European Commission presented their first draft of the "third package" of ...

October 2016
USDOT and NHTSA Issue Federal Automated Vehicles Policy - Accelerating the Next Revolution in Roadway Safety

The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the long-awaited guidance document covering usage of ...

September 2016
ECE Regulation on Rear Vision Updated to Permit Camera Based Systems

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on indirect vision requirements, ECE 46.04, has recently been amended to allow the fitment of camera ...

August 2016
Draft EU Regulation on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS) Published

Acoustic vehicle alerting systems (AVAS) are sound generating systems fitted to pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Their purpose is to generate sound when the ...

July 2016
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Standardize Lighting and Marking Requirements for Agricultural Equipment in US

The National Highway Transportation Association (NHTSA) has issued a rare Final Rule regarding agricultural equipment. NHTSA has not regulated the manufacture of most ...

June 2016
European Union Proposal on Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions Published

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 12th May 2016, the European Commission presented a first draft of an EU Implementing Regulation to introduce ...

May 2016
New European Union Requirements on Real Driving Emissions Published

The new EU requirements on real driving emissions (RDE), which introduce a new "on road" emissions test using a portable emissions measuring system (PEMS), have now been ...

April 2016
Proposal to Introduce the WLTP into the EU Emissions Requirements

To address concerns that the test procedure and drive cycle currently used for light duty vehicle emissions testing, known as the New European Drive Cycle or NEDC, does ...

March 2016
European Commission Proposes New Regulation to Replace 2007/46/EC

On 27th January, 2016, the European Commission published a draft new EU Regulation on the type approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, ...

February 2016
NHTSA Requests Comments on Proposals for Revising the New Car Assessment Program

The National Highway Transportation Association (NHTSA) considers the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) a success as indicated by the continued growth in consumer ...

January 2016
New ECE Regulation on Frontal Impact Adopted

At the 167th session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in November 2015, a new UN ECE Regulation on frontal impact was adopted. This new ...

2015

December 2015
ECE Regulation on Glazing Updated to Permit Plastic Windscreens

On 9th November, 2015, Supplement 4 to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on glazing, ECE 43.01, was published. This Supplement ...

November 2015
Amendments to the EU General Safety Regulation Proposed to Update the List of UN ECE Regulations that Apply on a Compulsory Basis

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting held on 6th October, 2015, the European Commission submitted a proposal to amend the General Safety Regulation, ( ...

October 2015
Proposal to add Particulate Matter Measurement into the EU Heavy Duty In-Service Emissions Testing Requirements

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting held on 10th September, 2015, the European Commission submitted a proposal to amend the implementing Regulation ...

September 2015
New ECE Regulation on Electric Vehicles of Category L Adopted

To compliment ECE 100.02, which covers safety requirements for vehicles of categories M and N equipped with an electric powertrain, the United Nations Economic Commission ...

August 2015
ECE Regulation on the Prevention of Fire Risks Updated to Mandate Rear Impact Testing

The 03 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 34 on the prevention of fire risks were published on 22nd June 2015. This new series of amendments requires all M1 ...

July 2015
The NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Add New Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 136 Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

On June 23, 2015 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Final Rule in the Federal Register that establishes a new Federal Motor Vehicle ...

June 2015
EU Regulation on eCall In-Vehicle Systems Published

On 19th May 2015, the European Union published a new Regulation, (EU) No. 2015/758, covering eCall in-vehicle systems. With effect from 31st March 2018, this new ...

May 2015
EU Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems Updated

EU Regulation No. 661/2009 introduced a requirement for the mandatory fitment of advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) to M2, M3, N2 and N3 Category vehicles and EU ...

April 2015
The NHTSA Issues Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Amend Seat Belt Anchorage Systems Regulation

Responding to Comments Received for the March 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Supplementary Notice of ...

March 2015
The NHTSA Issues NPRM to Amend Child Restraint Regulations to Improve Ease of Use

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 225 and 213 ...

February 2015
EU Regulation on Passenger Car Mandatory CO2 Emissions Limits Updated to Increase the Average Vehicle Mass Value

Compliance with EU Regulation No. 443/2009 on the CO2 emissions limits for new passenger cars is demonstrated using a formula specified within the Regulation. The formula ...

January 2015
European Union Proposes New Requirements on Real Driving Emissions

To address concerns that the real world emissions performance of light duty vehicles has not improved in line with the most recent reductions in the applicable type ...

2014

December 2014
European Type Approval Requirements for Multi Stage Built Vehicles Updated

Although EC Directive 2007/46/EC on European type approval has always contained specific requirements for vehicles built in multiple stages, experience gained in the ...

November 2014
UN ECE Requirements on EMC for "Plug-in" Vehicles Updated

The 05 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 10 on electromagnetic compatibility were published on 16th October, 2014. This new series of amendments introduces ...

October 2014
New Brazilian Resolution on Interior Material Flammability Published

In August 2014, a new Resolution on the flammability of interior materials was published by Brazil's National Traffic Council (CONTRAN). In this new Resolution, ...

September 2014
The NHTSA Issues Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which proposes to create a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety ...

August 2014
NHTSA Proposes to Remedy Two Issues by Publishing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Tire Identification and Recordkeeping

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to increase the manufacturer identifier portion of the tire ...

July 2014
New EU Regulation on Noise Emissions Published

New EU Regulation No. 540/2014 on the sound level of motor vehicles and of replacement silencing systems represents the most significant change in the European legal ...

June 2014
Global Technical Regulation on Light Vehicle Emissions Test Procedure Published

With its publication as Global Technical Regulation (GTR) No. 15 on 12th May 2014, the finalised worldwide harmonised light vehicle test procedure (WLTP) represents a ...

May 2014
NHTSA Issued Final Rule for Rear Visibility

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Final Rule expanding the required field of view for all passenger cars, trucks, multipurpose ...

April 2014
FHWA Issues Request for Information for Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking comments to help refine plans, for one or more pilot programs that combine ...

March 2014
Amendments to the EU Light Duty and Heavy Duty Emissions Requirements Proposed

The European Commission have recently published a proposal for a new EU Regulation that would introduce amendments to both the light duty and heavy duty emissions ...

February 2014
NHTSA Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for FMVSS 213 Child Restraint Systems

Supplementing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for Part 572 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices (see InterRegs Spotlight Article - December 2013), the National Highway ...

January 2014
EU Requirements on Motorcycle Emissions and Lighting Installation Updated

Amending Directive 2013/60/EU was published on 10th December 2013. It increases the stringency of the emissions requirements applicable to L1e, L2e and L6e category ...

2013

December 2013
NHTSA Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for 3 Year Old Side Impact Dummy

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that would amend Part 572 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices ( ...

November 2013
ECE Requirements on Driver's Vision Updated

In order to enhance the fields of vision available to the drivers of motor vehicles, two of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulations ...

October 2013
ECE Regulation on Electric Power Trains Updated

The 02 series of amendments to ECE 100 on electric power trains, which introduce new requirements, and associated test procedures, on the performance of rechargeable ...

September 2013
NHTSA Issued Final Rule for 49CFR Parts 573, 577 and 579

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Final Rule adopting amendments to certain provisions of the early warning reporting (EWR) rule and ...

August 2013
Second "Eco-Innovation" Approval Published by the European Commission

On 29th June 2013, the European Commission granted "approval" to a second eco-innovation. This "approval", details of which are given in Commission Implementing Decision ...

July 2013
South Africa Proposes Mandatory Compliance with ECE 100.01 for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

On 31st May 2013, the South African Department of Trade and Industry published proposed amendments to the compulsory specifications for both M1 and N1 category vehicles ...

June 2013
Updates to EU Requirements on Special Purpose Vehicles Proposed

At the Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 8th May 2013, the European Commission presented their first draft of a Regulation to update the special ...

May 2013
NHTSA Requesting Comments on Revisions to New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Request for Comments asking the public for assistance in improving the New Car Assessment Program ...

April 2013
New EU Type Approval Framework Regulations for Motorcycles and Agricultural Tractors Published

On 2nd March 2013, two new EU type approval "framework" Regulations were published; EU Regulation No. 167/2013 covering agricultural and forestry tractors and EU ...

March 2013
NHTSA Moving Ahead with Rulemaking for Quiet Vehicles

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued an NPRM to require minimum sound requirements for hybrid (HV) and electric vehicles (EV), Federal ...

February 2013
EU Publishes new Regulation on Masses and Dimensions

On 21st December 2012, the new EU Implementing Regulation on masses and dimensions, (EU) No. 1230/2012, was finally published. This new Implementing Regulation not only ...

January 2013
Rulemaking to Rescind FMVSS 219-Windshield Zone Intrusion is Withdrawn

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has withdrawn a proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 219 - Windshield Zone ...

2012

December 2012
Proposal for Adding FMVSS 226 Exemption to Part 595

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 49CFR Part 595 - Make Inoperative Exemptions. The ...

November 2012
NHTSA Proposal to Address Early Warning Reporting (EWR), Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall Regulations

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to revise a currently approved information collection. ...

October 2012
NHTSA Issues Final Rule Amending FMVSS 122 - Motorcycle Brake Systems

On August 24, 2012, NHTSA published a Final Rule (Vol. 77, Number 165; Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0123) amending requirements for FMVSS No. 122 - Motorcycle Brake Systems. ...

September 2012
NHTSA has issued a Final Rule in response to Petitions for Reconsideration for Part 563 Event Data Recorders

NHTSA has published a Final Rule amending requirements for voluntarily installed event data recorders. This action responds to three Petitions for Reconsiderations ...

August 2012
EU Proposals on "Long Term" CO2 Emissions Limits Published

On 11th July 2012, the European Commission published two proposed Regulations confirming the "long term" CO2 emissions targets for passenger cars and for light ...

July 2012
NHTSA Proposes a New FMVSS for Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

NHTSA has published a NPRM which proposes to add 49CFR Part 571 FMVSS 136 - Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles. This proposal aims to require ...

June 2012
New EU Regulations on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems and Lane Departure Warning Systems Published

After many months of discussion and negotiation, the Implementing Regulations covering the detailed technical requirements for advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS), ...

May 2012
NHTSA Proposes to Amend 49CFR Part 571 FMVSS 124 on Accelerator Control Systems

NHTSA is proposing to revise 49CFR Part 571 FMVSS 124 on accelerator control systems by amending the Standard to more fully address the failure modes of electronic ...

April 2012
UN ECE Regulation on EMC Updated to Cover Electric Vehicle Charging

The 04 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 10, which were published on 13th March 2012, introduce new requirements to specifically cover vehicles with an ...

March 2012
New EU Regulation on Gear Shift Indicators Published

After many months of consultation and negotiation, the new EU Implementing Regulation for (EC) No. 661/2009 containing the technical requirements for gear shift ...

February 2012
ECE Regulation on Commercial Vehicle Cab Safety Updated

On 4th January 2012, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) published an 03 series of amendments to Regulation No. 29 on commercial vehicle cab safety ...

January 2012
US Proposal to Amend 49 CFR Part 571 FMVSS 114 - Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

On December 12, 2011 the NHTSA published a NPRM which proposes to standardize the operation of controls that are used to stop the vehicle engine or other propulsion ...

April 2016

Proposal to Introduce the WLTP into the EU Emissions Requirements

For some years, the European Commission have been concerned that the currently specified emissions test procedures and drive cycles for light duty vehicles (known as the New European Drive Cycle or NEDC) do not accurately reflect real world driving and, as a result, the reductions in pollutant emissions limits and the targets on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions that have been introduced in recent years have not translated into equivalent improvements in the real world. For this reason, the European Union were a major contributor into the development of the worldwide harmonised light duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP), which was first published as Global Technical Regulation (GTR) No. 15 in 2014, and the European Commission have a long standing commitment to replace the NEDC with the WLTP in the EU light duty vehicle emissions requirements at the earliest possible opportunity.

Currently, in EU legislation, the main emissions requirements applicable to light duty vehicles (i.e. the emissions limits and introduction dates) are specified in EC Regulation No. 715/2007 and the detailed requirements (i.e. test procedures, measurement procedures, etc.) are specified in an Implementing Regulation; EC Regulation No. 692/2008. To introduce the WLTP into the EU emissions requirements, the European Commission have chosen to create a completely new Implementing Regulation that will replace EC Regulation No. 692/2008. This meant creating a new draft Regulation containing all of the detailed requirements and test procedures required for the implementation of the emissions requirements specified by EC Regulation No. 715/2007, including those on idle CO testing, access to repair and maintenance information, engine power testing, etc., although many of them could be carried over from EC Regulation No. 692/2008 unchanged.

The first official draft version of this proposed new Implementing Regulation was made available for discussion at the Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting which took place in Brussels on 15th March, 2016. Within this draft Implementing Regulation, an Annex has been allocated (Annex IIIA) to contain the new requirements on real driving emissions (RDE), once they are finalised and agreed, and the WLTP requirements have been placed in Annex XXI.

Work on the further development and refinement of the WLTP has continued under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) in parallel to the drafting of the new EU Implementing Regulation and the WLTP requirements contained in the draft Implementing Regulation are based on the latest version of the WLTP, known as Phase 1b, which was only adopted by the UN ECE Working Party on Pollution and Energy (GRPE) at their January 2016 meeting.

Due to the sheer size and complexity of the draft Implementing Regulation, it is not possible to summarise all of its requirements within this article. However, there are three points that are particularly worthy of note.

Pollutant Emissions Limits

Although this draft Implementing Regulation introduces new test procedures and drive cycles for emissions testing, the pollutant emissions limits that the vehicle must comply with remain as specified in EC Regulation No. 715/2007, i.e. Euro 6.

Ambient Temperature Correction

The WLTP requirements specify that the test vehicle must be "soaked" at an ambient temperature of 23°C prior to the emissions test and that the ambient temperature in the test cell during the emissions test must be maintained at 23°C. However, to be representative of the ambient temperatures across the European Union, the European Commission have dictated that the official European fuel consumption and CO2 emissions figures should be determined at 14°C.

To achieve this, the draft Implementing Regulation requires a representative vehicle to be tested at both 23°C and at 14°C and the results from both of these tests to be compared to determine an ambient temperature correction factor. This factor is then applied to the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions figures determined at 23°C to establish the official European fuel consumption and CO2 emissions figures.

NEDC Equivalent CO2 Emissions

Due to the fact that the existing EU Regulations specifying targets on the CO2 emissions performance of new passenger cars and new light commercial vehicles, (EC) No. 443/2009 and (EU) No. 510/2011 respectively, are based on CO2 emissions figures measured using the NEDC drive cycle and that many Member States have taxation systems in place based on NEDC based CO2 figures, it will be necessary to determine NEDC based CO2 emissions figures for some time after the WLTP has been introduced. Therefore, a specific computer simulation programme called Co2mpas has been developed to calculate NEDC based CO2 emissions figures based on the CO2 emissions results from WLTP testing and the use of this simulation programme is required by the draft Implementing Regulation.

With regard to introduction dates, the draft Implementing Regulation specifies the following:

  New type approvals All new vehicles

M1 and M2 category vehicles, and N1 category vehicles of Class I (i.e. reference mass ≤ 1305 kg)

e.g. passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, minibuses, car derived vans and small pick-up trucks

1st September 2017 1st September 2018

N1 category vehicles of classes II and III (i.e. reference mass > 1305 kg) and N2 category vehicles

e.g. vans, large pick-up trucks and light trucks

1st September 2018 1st September 2019

Nick Bowyer