Latest Articles

June 2018
EU Proposes New Regulation to Repeal and Replace (EC) No. 661/2009

On 17th May 2018, the European Commission published a draft new EU Regulation that will repeal and replace EC Regulation No. 661/2009 on the type approval requirements ...

May 2018
The FMCSA issues a Request for Comments to Identify Regulatory Barriers to Introducing Automated Driving Systems on Commercial Motor Vehicles in Interstate Commerce

This month's Spotlight article highlights another opportunity for stakeholder input for revising current regulations and/or drafting new ones regarding autonomous ...

April 2018
New Brazilian Resolution on Side Impact Protection Published

In January 2018, the Brazilian National Traffic Council (CONTRAN) published a new Resolution covering vehicle occupant protection requirements in the event of a side ...

2018

March 2018
Draft ECE Regulation on International Whole Vehicle Type Approval (IWVTA) Adopted

In November 2017, at their 173rd session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) finally adopted the new United Nations Economic Commission for ...

February 2018
The NHTSA and the FHWA Issue Requests for Comments / Information to Identify Regulatory Barriers to Introducing Automated Driving Systems

Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) are increasingly being tested and introduced onto the public roadways. Although predicted by most to save lives and decrease injuries ...

January 2018
EU Proposes Mandatory Fitment of Onboard Fuel Consumption Measuring Devices

On 12th December 2017, the European Commission published a draft Regulation proposing the mandatory fitment of onboard fuel consumption measuring devices to all light ...

2017

December 2017
EU Proposes Post 2020 CO2 Emissions Targets for Light Duty Vehicles

The European Commission have recently published a draft Regulation proposing average CO2 emissions targets to be applied to light duty vehicles for the period beyond 2020 ...

November 2017
NHTSA and the U.S. DOT Update Voluntary Guidance Policy for Automated Vehicles

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are continuing their quest to support the introduction of ...

October 2017
EU Updates Requirements on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS)

EU Regulation No. 2017/1576, which was published on 19th September 2017, amends EU Regulation No. 540/2014 on the sound levels produced by motor vehicles to introduce new ...

September 2017
ECE Clarifies Anti-Lock Brake System Deactivation Switch Requirements for Motorcycles

On 26th July 2017, an 04 series of amendments to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 78 covering the braking requirements for all L ...

August 2017
New EU Regulations on Light Duty Vehicle Emissions Published

On 7th July 2017, five important new EU Regulations on light duty vehicle emissions were published in the Official Journal of the European Union. These new EU Regulations ...

July 2017
Updated ECE Requirements on Automatically Commanded Steering Functions Proposed

To address the rapid development and deployment of advanced driver assistance systems that has occurred in the last couple of years, the World Forum for Harmonisation of ...

June 2017
Amendments to EU Requirements on Access to Repair and Maintenance Information Proposed

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 11th May 2017, the European Commission presented draft amendments to both the light duty vehicle and heavy ...

May 2017
Draft Indian Standard on New Mandatory Safety Features Published

In October 2016, the Indian Ministry of Transport and Highways published a proposal to mandate the fitment of speed warning devices, safety belt reminders, manual ...

April 2017
Expanded ECE Requirements on Safety Belt Reminder Fitment Proposed

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 16 on safety belts and restraints systems currently mandates the fitment of a safety belt reminder ...

March 2017
European Commission Guidance Document on "Defeat Devices" Published

To address the highly publicised "emissions scandal", the European Commission have instigated a number of changes to the European Union's legal requirements on emissions ...

February 2017
EU Regulation on the Technical Requirements for eCall Systems Published

Following the publication of EU Regulation No. 2015/758, which mandated the fitment of in-vehicle eCall systems to all new types of M1 and N1 category vehicle from 31st ...

January 2017
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Reduce the Risk of Pedestrian Crashes by Establishing Minimum Sound Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Listen for those electric and hybrid vehicles -- soon to be heard. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Final Rule on December 14, 2016 ...

2016

December 2016
New UN ECE Regulations Created Due to "Splitting" of Existing Regulations

At their 169th session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), formally adopted three new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE ...

November 2016
Further Draft European Union Regulation on Real Driving Emissions Published

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 3rd October 2016, the European Commission presented their first draft of the "third package" of ...

October 2016
USDOT and NHTSA Issue Federal Automated Vehicles Policy - Accelerating the Next Revolution in Roadway Safety

The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the long-awaited guidance document covering usage of ...

September 2016
ECE Regulation on Rear Vision Updated to Permit Camera Based Systems

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on indirect vision requirements, ECE 46.04, has recently been amended to allow the fitment of camera ...

August 2016
Draft EU Regulation on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS) Published

Acoustic vehicle alerting systems (AVAS) are sound generating systems fitted to pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Their purpose is to generate sound when the ...

July 2016
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Standardize Lighting and Marking Requirements for Agricultural Equipment in US

The National Highway Transportation Association (NHTSA) has issued a rare Final Rule regarding agricultural equipment. NHTSA has not regulated the manufacture of most ...

June 2016
European Union Proposal on Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions Published

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 12th May 2016, the European Commission presented a first draft of an EU Implementing Regulation to introduce ...

May 2016
New European Union Requirements on Real Driving Emissions Published

The new EU requirements on real driving emissions (RDE), which introduce a new "on road" emissions test using a portable emissions measuring system (PEMS), have now been ...

April 2016
Proposal to Introduce the WLTP into the EU Emissions Requirements

To address concerns that the test procedure and drive cycle currently used for light duty vehicle emissions testing, known as the New European Drive Cycle or NEDC, does ...

March 2016
European Commission Proposes New Regulation to Replace 2007/46/EC

On 27th January, 2016, the European Commission published a draft new EU Regulation on the type approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, ...

February 2016
NHTSA Requests Comments on Proposals for Revising the New Car Assessment Program

The National Highway Transportation Association (NHTSA) considers the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) a success as indicated by the continued growth in consumer ...

January 2016
New ECE Regulation on Frontal Impact Adopted

At the 167th session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in November 2015, a new UN ECE Regulation on frontal impact was adopted. This new ...

2015

December 2015
ECE Regulation on Glazing Updated to Permit Plastic Windscreens

On 9th November, 2015, Supplement 4 to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on glazing, ECE 43.01, was published. This Supplement ...

November 2015
Amendments to the EU General Safety Regulation Proposed to Update the List of UN ECE Regulations that Apply on a Compulsory Basis

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting held on 6th October, 2015, the European Commission submitted a proposal to amend the General Safety Regulation, ( ...

October 2015
Proposal to add Particulate Matter Measurement into the EU Heavy Duty In-Service Emissions Testing Requirements

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting held on 10th September, 2015, the European Commission submitted a proposal to amend the implementing Regulation ...

September 2015
New ECE Regulation on Electric Vehicles of Category L Adopted

To compliment ECE 100.02, which covers safety requirements for vehicles of categories M and N equipped with an electric powertrain, the United Nations Economic Commission ...

August 2015
ECE Regulation on the Prevention of Fire Risks Updated to Mandate Rear Impact Testing

The 03 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 34 on the prevention of fire risks were published on 22nd June 2015. This new series of amendments requires all M1 ...

July 2015
The NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Add New Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 136 Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

On June 23, 2015 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Final Rule in the Federal Register that establishes a new Federal Motor Vehicle ...

June 2015
EU Regulation on eCall In-Vehicle Systems Published

On 19th May 2015, the European Union published a new Regulation, (EU) No. 2015/758, covering eCall in-vehicle systems. With effect from 31st March 2018, this new ...

May 2015
EU Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems Updated

EU Regulation No. 661/2009 introduced a requirement for the mandatory fitment of advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) to M2, M3, N2 and N3 Category vehicles and EU ...

April 2015
The NHTSA Issues Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Amend Seat Belt Anchorage Systems Regulation

Responding to Comments Received for the March 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Supplementary Notice of ...

March 2015
The NHTSA Issues NPRM to Amend Child Restraint Regulations to Improve Ease of Use

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 225 and 213 ...

February 2015
EU Regulation on Passenger Car Mandatory CO2 Emissions Limits Updated to Increase the Average Vehicle Mass Value

Compliance with EU Regulation No. 443/2009 on the CO2 emissions limits for new passenger cars is demonstrated using a formula specified within the Regulation. The formula ...

January 2015
European Union Proposes New Requirements on Real Driving Emissions

To address concerns that the real world emissions performance of light duty vehicles has not improved in line with the most recent reductions in the applicable type ...

2014

December 2014
European Type Approval Requirements for Multi Stage Built Vehicles Updated

Although EC Directive 2007/46/EC on European type approval has always contained specific requirements for vehicles built in multiple stages, experience gained in the ...

November 2014
UN ECE Requirements on EMC for "Plug-in" Vehicles Updated

The 05 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 10 on electromagnetic compatibility were published on 16th October, 2014. This new series of amendments introduces ...

October 2014
New Brazilian Resolution on Interior Material Flammability Published

In August 2014, a new Resolution on the flammability of interior materials was published by Brazil's National Traffic Council (CONTRAN). In this new Resolution, ...

September 2014
The NHTSA Issues Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which proposes to create a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety ...

August 2014
NHTSA Proposes to Remedy Two Issues by Publishing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Tire Identification and Recordkeeping

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to increase the manufacturer identifier portion of the tire ...

July 2014
New EU Regulation on Noise Emissions Published

New EU Regulation No. 540/2014 on the sound level of motor vehicles and of replacement silencing systems represents the most significant change in the European legal ...

June 2014
Global Technical Regulation on Light Vehicle Emissions Test Procedure Published

With its publication as Global Technical Regulation (GTR) No. 15 on 12th May 2014, the finalised worldwide harmonised light vehicle test procedure (WLTP) represents a ...

May 2014
NHTSA Issued Final Rule for Rear Visibility

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Final Rule expanding the required field of view for all passenger cars, trucks, multipurpose ...

April 2014
FHWA Issues Request for Information for Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking comments to help refine plans, for one or more pilot programs that combine ...

March 2014
Amendments to the EU Light Duty and Heavy Duty Emissions Requirements Proposed

The European Commission have recently published a proposal for a new EU Regulation that would introduce amendments to both the light duty and heavy duty emissions ...

February 2014
NHTSA Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for FMVSS 213 Child Restraint Systems

Supplementing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for Part 572 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices (see InterRegs Spotlight Article - December 2013), the National Highway ...

January 2014
EU Requirements on Motorcycle Emissions and Lighting Installation Updated

Amending Directive 2013/60/EU was published on 10th December 2013. It increases the stringency of the emissions requirements applicable to L1e, L2e and L6e category ...

2013

December 2013
NHTSA Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for 3 Year Old Side Impact Dummy

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that would amend Part 572 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices ( ...

November 2013
ECE Requirements on Driver's Vision Updated

In order to enhance the fields of vision available to the drivers of motor vehicles, two of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulations ...

October 2013
ECE Regulation on Electric Power Trains Updated

The 02 series of amendments to ECE 100 on electric power trains, which introduce new requirements, and associated test procedures, on the performance of rechargeable ...

September 2013
NHTSA Issued Final Rule for 49CFR Parts 573, 577 and 579

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Final Rule adopting amendments to certain provisions of the early warning reporting (EWR) rule and ...

August 2013
Second "Eco-Innovation" Approval Published by the European Commission

On 29th June 2013, the European Commission granted "approval" to a second eco-innovation. This "approval", details of which are given in Commission Implementing Decision ...

July 2013
South Africa Proposes Mandatory Compliance with ECE 100.01 for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

On 31st May 2013, the South African Department of Trade and Industry published proposed amendments to the compulsory specifications for both M1 and N1 category vehicles ...

June 2013
Updates to EU Requirements on Special Purpose Vehicles Proposed

At the Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 8th May 2013, the European Commission presented their first draft of a Regulation to update the special ...

May 2013
NHTSA Requesting Comments on Revisions to New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a Request for Comments asking the public for assistance in improving the New Car Assessment Program ...

April 2013
New EU Type Approval Framework Regulations for Motorcycles and Agricultural Tractors Published

On 2nd March 2013, two new EU type approval "framework" Regulations were published; EU Regulation No. 167/2013 covering agricultural and forestry tractors and EU ...

March 2013
NHTSA Moving Ahead with Rulemaking for Quiet Vehicles

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued an NPRM to require minimum sound requirements for hybrid (HV) and electric vehicles (EV), Federal ...

February 2013
EU Publishes new Regulation on Masses and Dimensions

On 21st December 2012, the new EU Implementing Regulation on masses and dimensions, (EU) No. 1230/2012, was finally published. This new Implementing Regulation not only ...

January 2013
Rulemaking to Rescind FMVSS 219-Windshield Zone Intrusion is Withdrawn

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has withdrawn a proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 219 - Windshield Zone ...

June 2018

EU Proposes New Regulation to Repeal and Replace (EC) No. 661/2009

EC Regulation No. 661/2009, entitled "type approval requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles, their trailers and systems, components and separate technical units intended therefor" (more often referred to as the General Safety Regulation or GSR) was originally published on 31st July 2009. Not only did this new Regulation repeal a large number of the "separate" EC Directives and replace them with references to the corresponding United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulations, it also mandated the fitment of a number of "new technology" systems, such as electronic stability control (ESC) systems, lane departure warning systems (LDWS) and advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS).

Included within the Articles of (EC) No. 661/2009 was a requirement for the European Commission to monitor the development of any new safety features and, where appropriate, to propose amendments to the General Safety Regulation to mandate the fitment of such features. As part of their work to address this requirement, in March 2015, the European Commission published a study which identified 50 potential safety measures which could be implemented to improve vehicle occupant and pedestrian safety. Over the following two years, more detailed feasibility and cost benefit studies were carried out on these potential safety measures and 19 measures were identified as being feasible and cost effective for implementation.

Rather than updating the exiting General Safety Regulation to introduce requirements for these new measures, the European Commission have taken the opportunity to draft a completely new Regulation which will repeal and replace not only the existing General Safety Regulation ((EC) No. 661/2009), but also the existing EU Regulation on pedestrian protection ((EC) No. 78/2009) and the existing EU Regulation on hydrogen powered motor vehicles ((EC) No. 79/2009). A draft version of this new Regulation was published by the European Commission on 17th May 2018 as part of a public consultation exercise which runs from 17th May 2018 to 17th July 2018.

The draft new Regulation contains a significant number of changes compared to the three existing Regulations that it repeals and replaces. However, the main changes introduced by this draft Regulation generally fall into one of the following five categories:

1. Repealed EC Regulations Replaced by UN ECE Regulations

To replace the repealed EU Regulations on pedestrian protection and hydrogen powered motor vehicles, i.e. (EC) No. 78/2009 and (EC) No. 79/2009, the new draft Regulation requires compliance with the equivalent UN ECE Regulations on these subjects, i.e. ECE 127.02 on pedestrian protection and ECE 134.00 on hydrogen safety.  However, as ECE 127.02 does not currently include equivalent requirements on frontal protection systems (e.g. bull bars) to those specified in (EC) No. 78/2009, the requirements on frontal protection systems from (EC) No. 78/2009 have been transferred into an annex (Annex IV) to the draft new Regulation. Similarly, as ECE 134.00 does not currently include equivalent requirements on the materials used in compressed hydrogen vehicle systems to those specified in (EC) No. 79/2009, the material requirements from (EC) No. 79/2009 have been transferred into an annex (Annex V) to the draft new Regulation.

2. New UN ECE Regulations on Components Introduced

The list of UN ECE Regulations which apply on a compulsory basis is expanded to add the following UN ECE Regulations:

  • ECE 45.01 on headlamp cleaners.
  • ECE 108.00 on retreaded tyres for passenger cars and their trailers.
  • ECE 109.00 on retreaded tyres for commercial vehicles and their trailers.
  • ECE 114.00 on replacement airbags.
  • ECE 115.00 on LPG and CNG retrofit systems.
  • ECE 124.00 on replacement wheels.
  • ECE 126.00 on partitioning systems.
  • ECE 129.00 on enhanced child restraint systems.

3. New UN ECE Regulations on Occupant Protection Introduced

The list of UN ECE Regulations which apply on a compulsory basis is expanded to add the following UN ECE Regulations:

  • ECE 135.01 on pole side impact performance.
  • ECE 137.01 on frontal collision with a focus on the restraint system (full width barrier impact), with the scope expanded to include all N1 category vehicles.

4. Scope of Existing UN ECE Regulations Expanded

In the following instances, the scope of existing UN ECE Regulations is expanded by the draft new EU Regulation:

  • ECE 34.03 on the prevention of fire risks - scope of rear impact testing expanded to include all M1 and N1 category vehicles with a maximum mass not exceeding 3,500 kg.
  • ECE 94.03 on the protection of occupants in the event of a frontal collision - scope expanded to include all M1 and N1 category vehicles with a maximum mass not exceeding 3,500 kg.
  • ECE 95.03 on the protection of occupants in the event of a lateral collision - scope expanded to include all M1 and N1 category vehicles, regardless of the height of the R points above the ground.
  • ECE 125.01 on forward field of vision - scope expanded to include all N1 category vehicles.

5. New Features Requiring New Regulatory Requirements to be Developed

The draft new EU Regulation introduces requirements for a number of new features for which detailed technical requirements and test procedures do not currently exist. It is envisaged that, in most cases, these new requirements will be developed within the UN ECE framework.  However, the European Commission will develop specific EU Delegated Regulations on any subjects where the UN ECE are unable to support the European Commission’s requirements and timescales.

The new features required by the draft new Regulation can be summarised as follows:

  • Advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) for M1 and N1 category vehicles capable of detecting moving vehicles and stationary obstacles.
  • Advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) for M1 and N1 category vehicles that are capable of detecting pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Blind spot information systems and pedestrian / cyclist collision warning systems for M2, M3, N2 and N3 category vehicles.
  • Direct vision requirements for M2, M3, N2 and N3 category vehicles.
  • Reversing detection systems for all categories of vehicle.
  • Emergency lane keeping systems for M1 and N1 category vehicles.
  • Tyre pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) for vehicle categories other than M1 category.
  • Intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems for all M and N category vehicles.
  • Emergency stop signals for all categories of vehicle.
  • Alcohol interlock installation provisions for all M and N category vehicles.
  • Driver drowsiness and attention detection systems for all M and N category vehicles.
  • Advanced driver distraction recognition systems for all M and N category vehicles.
  • Event data recorders (EDR) for M1 and N1 category vehicles.
  • Enlarged pedestrian protection head impact protection zone for M1 and N1 category vehicles.

In preparation for the introduction of autonomous / automated vehicles, the draft new Regulation also specifies the fitment of the following features / systems to such vehicles, regardless of their vehicle category:

  • Driver availability monitoring systems.
  • Event data recorders (EDR).
  • Systems to replace the driver’s control.
  • Systems to monitor the area surrounding the vehicle.
  • Communication systems and protocols for platooning.


With regard to introduction dates, it is proposed that the new Regulation would enter into force 20 days after its publication in the Official Journal (OJ) and the implementation dates for the new requirements are based on this "entry into force" date. The following table contains a summary of the proposed introduction dates for the new and revised requirements specified above:

New Requirements Proposed Implementation Dates
  • ECE 45.01 on headlamp cleaners.
  • ECE 108.00 and ECE 109.00 on retreaded tyres.
  • ECE 115.00 on LPG and CNG retrofit systems.
  • ECE 34.03 on rear impact testing (M1 + N1).
  • ECE 94.03 on frontal impact - scope expanded (M1 + N1).
  • ECE 95.03 on side impact - scope expanded (M1 + N1).
3 years after "entry into force" date for all new registrations
  • ECE 114.00 on replacement airbags.
  • ECE 124.00 on replacement wheels.
  • ECE 126.00 on partitioning systems.
  • ECE 129.00 on enhanced child restraint systems.
  • ECE 135.01 on pole side impact performance (M1 + N1).
  • ECE 137.01 on full width barrier frontal impact (M1 + N1).
  • ECE 125.01 on forward field of vision (M1).
  • Advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) capable of detecting moving vehicles and stationary obstacles (M1 + N1).
  • Blind spot information systems and pedestrian / cyclist collision warning systems (M2, M3, N2 + N3).
  • Enlarged pedestrian protection head impact protection zone (M1 + N1).
  • Reversing detection systems (M, N + O).
  • Emergency lane keeping systems (M1 + N1).
  • Tyre pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) (M2, M3, N1, N2, N3, O3 + O4).
  • Intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems (M + N).
  • Emergency stop signals (M, N + O).
  • Alcohol interlock installation provisions (M + N).
  • Driver drowsiness and attention detection systems (M + N).
  • Event data recorders (EDR) (M1 + N1).
  • Event data recorders (EDR) (autonomous vehicles).
  • Driver availability monitoring systems (autonomous vehicles).
  • Systems to replace the driver’s control (autonomous vehicles).
  • Systems to monitor the area surrounding the vehicle (autonomous vehicles).
  • Communication systems and protocols for platooning (autonomous vehicles).

3 years after "entry into force" date for all new type approvals

5 years after "entry into force" date for all new registrations

  • ECE 125.01 on forward field of vision (N1).
  • Advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) capable of detecting pedestrians and cyclists (M1 + N1).
  • Advanced driver distraction recognition systems (M + N).

5 years after "entry into force" date for all new type approvals

7 years after "entry into force" date for all new registrations

  • Direct vision requirements (M2, M3, N2 + N3).

7 years after "entry into force" date for all new type approvals

10 years after "entry into force" date for all new registrations

Nick Bowyer