Latest Articles

May 2021
EU Regulation on Emergency Lane Keeping Systems Published

The mandatory fitment of Emergency Lane Keeping Systems (ELKS) is one of the new safety features required by EU Regulation 2019/2144, and to support the introduction of ...

April 2021
New UN ECE Regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems Published

On March 4, 2021, new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 157-00 on automated lane keeping systems was officially published. This new ...

March 2021
Draft EU Regulation on Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning Systems Published

The mandatory fitment of Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning (DDAW) systems is one of the new safety features mandated by EU Regulation 2019/2144, and to support the ...

2021

February 2021
New Chinese Standards on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Published

The Chinese Government have published three new standards which specifically cover advanced driver assistance systems. Chinese standard GB/T 39263-2020 specifies terms ...

January 2021
NHTSA Seeks Additional Input for Development of a Framework for Automated Driving System (ADS) Safety

As noted in the InterRegs December Bulletin, NHTSA had authored an ANPRM on Automated Driving Systems that was to be released in the Federal Register soon. In the ...

2020

December 2020
Updates to UN ECE Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems Published

Since the publication of the original version of UN ECE Regulation No. 152 on advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) for M1 and N1 category vehicles, the Informal ...

November 2020
New Australian Road Vehicle Standards Legislation Published

In preparation for the mandatory implementation of the Australian Road Vehicle Standards Act 2018, on September 30, 2020, the Australian Government published a new 03 ...

October 2020
The NHTSA/DOT issue Interim Final Rule and Request for Comments Regarding Delay of FMVSS 141 Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

NHTSA has published an Interim Final Rule along with a Request for Comments in response to a petition asking for relief in meeting phase-in and full compliance dates for ...

September 2020
EU Proposes Revisions to the Post 2020 Average CO2 Monitoring Requirements for Light Duty Vehicles

As specified in Regulation (EU) 2019/631, the average CO2 emissions targets applicable to passenger car and light commercial vehicle manufacturers will switch from being ...

August 2020
New UN ECE Regulations on Cyber Security and Software Updates Adopted

At the 181st session of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in June 2020, two new ...

July 2020
New Chinese Standards on Electric Vehicles and Batteries Published

As part of an exercise to update the safety requirements applicable to electrically powered vehicles, China has recently published three new Chinese standards. GB 38031- ...

June 2020
Updates to ECE Regulation on Lighting Installation Adopted

At the 180th session of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in March 2020, an 07 ...

May 2020
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposes Revisions to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs) to Accommodate Automated Driving Systems (ADS)

In the March 30th Federal Register (Vol. 85; No.61) the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a proposal to modify many of the 200 Series ...

April 2020
Taiwan Delays the Introduction Dates for Certain New Safety Requirements

In January 2020, the Taiwanese Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) issued an updated version of their Motor Vehicle Safety Testing Regulations which ...

March 2020
USDOT Expands Autonomous Vehicle Support and Requests Comments

The Office of the Secretary for the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) issued Automated Vehicles 4.0: Ensuring American Leadership in Automated Vehicle ...

February 2020
New ECE Regulation on Blind Spot Information Systems Published

On January 13, 2020, a new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on Blind Spot Information Systems for the detection of bicycles, ECE ...

January 2020
New EU General Safety Regulation Published

The long awaited new EU General Safety Regulation was finally published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 16th December 2019 as EU Regulation No. 2019/2144 ...

2019

December 2019
EU Regulation on Aerodynamic Devices for Trucks and Trailers Published

On November 12, 2019, a new EU Regulation was published which introduced amendments to EU Regulation No. 1230/2012 on the type approval requirements for masses and ...

November 2019
NHTSA Issues an Advanced Proposal for the Addition of a Seat Belt Use Warning System for Rear Seats

On September 27, 2019 (FR Vol. 84 No. 188) the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) (Docket ...

October 2019
NHTSA Issues an NPRM to allow more Flexibility in the Pedestrian Alert Sounds of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

On September 17, 2019 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety ...

September 2019
New EU Regulation on CO2 Emissions Targets for Heavy Duty Vehicles Published

On July 25, 2019, a new European Union Regulation specifying CO2 emissions reduction targets for heavy duty vehicles, EU Regulation No. 2019/1242, was published in the ...

August 2019
New UN ECE Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems Adopted

At the 178th session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in June 2019, a new UN ECE Regulation on Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS ...

July 2019
US Federal Agencies are Continuing to Pursue Rulemaking related to Autonomous Vehicles

On May 28, 2019 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) and is seeking public comment on ...

June 2019
Draft Amendments to EU Regulation on Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Published

On 17th May 2019, the European Commission published a draft Regulation introducing "Step E" of the Euro VI heavy duty emissions requirements. The two main amendments ...

May 2019
Major Revisions to UN ECE Regulations on Lamps and Reflectors Adopted

At its recent 177th session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) adopted three new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) ...

April 2019
New Australian Road Vehicle Standards Legislation Published

A number of significant changes to the Australian legislative requirements regarding the importation and first provision of road vehicles and their components have been ...

March 2019
Draft EU Regulation on Aerodynamic Devices for Trucks and Trailers Published

On 30th January 2019, the European Commission published a draft Regulation proposing amendments to EU Regulation No. 1230/2012 on the type approval requirements for ...

February 2019
Updates to EU and UK Type Approval Requirements Published to Cover Brexit

The UK's impending departure from the European Union will have implications on the application and acceptability of European Union type approvals issued to passenger cars ...

January 2019
Updated ECE Requirements on Airbag Warning Labels Proposed

At the November session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), an 08 series of amendments to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ( ...

2018

December 2018
ECE Regulation on Steering Updated to Cover Further Automatically Commanded Steering Functions

On 2nd November 2018, an 03 series of amendments to UN ECE Regulation No. 79 was published. This follows on from the previous 02 series of amendments to United Nations ...

November 2018
The U.S. DOT Issued a Notice of Request for Comments on newly issued autonomous vehicle guidelines - Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0 (AV 3.0)

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued a Notice of Request for Comments on a newly issued autonomous vehicles document: The DOT has issued an update to ...

October 2018
ECE Adopts Updated Requirements on Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems for Light Duty Vehicles

The World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) has recently adopted a proposed Supplement 7 to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) ...

September 2018
China Introduces Reduced Fuel Consumption Limits for Heavy Duty Vehicles

The Chinese government have recently published an updated version of the Chinese Standard specifying the maximum permissible fuel consumption limits for heavy duty ...

August 2018
New EU Regulation on Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions Monitoring Published

As part of the European Union's plans to implement a CO2 emissions reduction regime for heavy duty vehicles, on 9th July 2018, a new EU Regulation on the monitoring and ...

July 2018
New EU Type Approval Framework Regulation Published

On 14th June 2018, the new EU Regulation on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical ...

June 2018
EU Proposes New Regulation to Repeal and Replace (EC) No. 661/2009

On 17th May 2018, the European Commission published a draft new EU Regulation that will repeal and replace EC Regulation No. 661/2009 on the type approval requirements ...

May 2018
The FMCSA issues a Request for Comments to Identify Regulatory Barriers to Introducing Automated Driving Systems on Commercial Motor Vehicles in Interstate Commerce

This month's Spotlight article highlights another opportunity for stakeholder input for revising current regulations and/or drafting new ones regarding autonomous ...

April 2018
New Brazilian Resolution on Side Impact Protection Published

In January 2018, the Brazilian National Traffic Council (CONTRAN) published a new Resolution covering vehicle occupant protection requirements in the event of a side ...

March 2018
Draft ECE Regulation on International Whole Vehicle Type Approval (IWVTA) Adopted

In November 2017, at their 173rd session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) finally adopted the new United Nations Economic Commission for ...

February 2018
The NHTSA and the FHWA Issue Requests for Comments / Information to Identify Regulatory Barriers to Introducing Automated Driving Systems

Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) are increasingly being tested and introduced onto the public roadways. Although predicted by most to save lives and decrease injuries ...

January 2018
EU Proposes Mandatory Fitment of Onboard Fuel Consumption Measuring Devices

On 12th December 2017, the European Commission published a draft Regulation proposing the mandatory fitment of onboard fuel consumption measuring devices to all light ...

2017

December 2017
EU Proposes Post 2020 CO2 Emissions Targets for Light Duty Vehicles

The European Commission have recently published a draft Regulation proposing average CO2 emissions targets to be applied to light duty vehicles for the period beyond 2020 ...

November 2017
NHTSA and the U.S. DOT Update Voluntary Guidance Policy for Automated Vehicles

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are continuing their quest to support the introduction of ...

October 2017
EU Updates Requirements on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS)

EU Regulation No. 2017/1576, which was published on 19th September 2017, amends EU Regulation No. 540/2014 on the sound levels produced by motor vehicles to introduce new ...

September 2017
ECE Clarifies Anti-Lock Brake System Deactivation Switch Requirements for Motorcycles

On 26th July 2017, an 04 series of amendments to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 78 covering the braking requirements for all L ...

August 2017
New EU Regulations on Light Duty Vehicle Emissions Published

On 7th July 2017, five important new EU Regulations on light duty vehicle emissions were published in the Official Journal of the European Union. These new EU Regulations ...

July 2017
Updated ECE Requirements on Automatically Commanded Steering Functions Proposed

To address the rapid development and deployment of advanced driver assistance systems that has occurred in the last couple of years, the World Forum for Harmonisation of ...

June 2017
Amendments to EU Requirements on Access to Repair and Maintenance Information Proposed

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 11th May 2017, the European Commission presented draft amendments to both the light duty vehicle and heavy ...

May 2017
Draft Indian Standard on New Mandatory Safety Features Published

In October 2016, the Indian Ministry of Transport and Highways published a proposal to mandate the fitment of speed warning devices, safety belt reminders, manual ...

April 2017
Expanded ECE Requirements on Safety Belt Reminder Fitment Proposed

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 16 on safety belts and restraints systems currently mandates the fitment of a safety belt reminder ...

March 2017
European Commission Guidance Document on "Defeat Devices" Published

To address the highly publicised "emissions scandal", the European Commission have instigated a number of changes to the European Union's legal requirements on emissions ...

February 2017
EU Regulation on the Technical Requirements for eCall Systems Published

Following the publication of EU Regulation No. 2015/758, which mandated the fitment of in-vehicle eCall systems to all new types of M1 and N1 category vehicle from 31st ...

January 2017
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Reduce the Risk of Pedestrian Crashes by Establishing Minimum Sound Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Listen for those electric and hybrid vehicles -- soon to be heard. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has issued a Final Rule on December 14, 2016 ...

2016

December 2016
New UN ECE Regulations Created Due to "Splitting" of Existing Regulations

At their 169th session, the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), formally adopted three new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE ...

November 2016
Further Draft European Union Regulation on Real Driving Emissions Published

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 3rd October 2016, the European Commission presented their first draft of the "third package" of ...

October 2016
USDOT and NHTSA Issue Federal Automated Vehicles Policy - Accelerating the Next Revolution in Roadway Safety

The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the long-awaited guidance document covering usage of ...

September 2016
ECE Regulation on Rear Vision Updated to Permit Camera Based Systems

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation on indirect vision requirements, ECE 46.04, has recently been amended to allow the fitment of camera ...

August 2016
Draft EU Regulation on Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS) Published

Acoustic vehicle alerting systems (AVAS) are sound generating systems fitted to pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Their purpose is to generate sound when the ...

July 2016
NHTSA Issues Final Rule to Standardize Lighting and Marking Requirements for Agricultural Equipment in US

The National Highway Transportation Association (NHTSA) has issued a rare Final Rule regarding agricultural equipment. NHTSA has not regulated the manufacture of most ...

June 2016
European Union Proposal on Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions Published

At a Technical Committee - Motor Vehicles (TCMV) meeting on 12th May 2016, the European Commission presented a first draft of an EU Implementing Regulation to introduce ...

May 2016
New European Union Requirements on Real Driving Emissions Published

The new EU requirements on real driving emissions (RDE), which introduce a new "on road" emissions test using a portable emissions measuring system (PEMS), have now been ...

April 2016
Proposal to Introduce the WLTP into the EU Emissions Requirements

To address concerns that the test procedure and drive cycle currently used for light duty vehicle emissions testing, known as the New European Drive Cycle or NEDC, does ...

March 2016
European Commission Proposes New Regulation to Replace 2007/46/EC

On 27th January, 2016, the European Commission published a draft new EU Regulation on the type approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, ...

February 2016
NHTSA Requests Comments on Proposals for Revising the New Car Assessment Program

The National Highway Transportation Association (NHTSA) considers the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) a success as indicated by the continued growth in consumer ...

January 2016
New ECE Regulation on Frontal Impact Adopted

At the 167th session of the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) in November 2015, a new UN ECE Regulation on frontal impact was adopted. This new ...

April 2021

New UN ECE Regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems Published

As the automotive industry moves along the path to the development of fully automated vehicles, the recent publication of new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Regulation No. 157-00 on Automated Lane Keeping Systems (ALKS) represents a major milestone in the establishment of legal requirements covering the necessary automated driving systems. Despite the Regulation’s title specifically referencing "lane keeping", it actually specifies requirements for systems which actively control both the vehicle's lateral movement (i.e. steering) and its longitudinal movement (i.e. acceleration and deceleration) over extended periods without driver input. However, at this stage, the conditions during which such systems are permitted to operate are restricted.

This new Regulation, which was officially published on March 4, 2021, is only applicable to M1 category vehicles, i.e. passenger cars and multipurpose passenger vehicles, and specifies that Automated Lane Keeping Systems (ALKS) may only operate at speeds not exceeding 60 km/h. Furthermore, it restricts the operation of ALKS to roads where pedestrians and cyclists are prohibited and which have a central barrier to separate traffic travelling in opposite directions. Basically, the systems falling within the scope of this Regulation are those which are sometimes referred to as "Traffic Jam Assist" systems. These systems can take over the driving functions when heavy, slow moving traffic is encountered on a motorway/highway. Once activated, these systems regulate the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in accordance with traffic flow whilst ensuring that the vehicle follows the road/lane contour, without any input from the driver.

The Regulation specifies numerous design and performance criteria that the ALKS must comply with and specifies test procedures to which an ALKS equipped vehicle must be subjected to demonstrate compliance with those requirements. However, the Regulation also specifies that the vehicle manufacturer must compile documentation detailing the design and operation of the ALKS, the safety concept for the ALKS and evidence to demonstrate that thorough consideration of functional and operational safety has been applied throughout the design and development of the system. This documentation must be submitted to the Technical Service at the time of type approval for them to review. The Technical Service may also request that an ALKS equipped vehicle is subjected to additional testing, beyond the test procedures specified in the Regulation itself, to confirm the safe operation of the system.

The design and performance requirements specified in the Regulation include requirements covering the following:

  • Dynamic driving task - Specifying the driving tasks that the system must capable of undertaking when in operation, such as keeping the vehicle within its lane, following the road contour, accelerating and decelerating the vehicle to maintain a safe distance to the vehicle in front, including bringing the vehicle to a complete stop, and adjusting the vehicle speed if a vehicle "cuts in" between the ALKS equipped vehicle and the vehicle it was following.
     
  • Emergency manoeuvre - Specifying that the vehicle must be capable of decelerating the vehicle rapidly when an imminent collision risk is detected.
     
  • Transition to driver control - Specifying the situations where control must be transitioned back to the driver and the conditions that must be met during the transition back to driver control.
     
  • Minimum risk manoeuvre - Specifying that the vehicle must be capable of safely bringing the vehicle to a halt in a non-emergency situation. For example, where the system requires transition back to driver control, but the driver does not assume control.
     
  • Driver availability recognition system - Specifying that the vehicle must be equipped with a driver availability recognition system which constantly monitors the driver to ensure that the driver is available to take over the driving task, if necessary.
     
  • System activation and deactivation - Specifying the conditions which must be met for the system to be activated and the conditions which must cause automatic deactivation of the system, with a suitable transition back to driver control.
     
  • System override - Specifying that the driver must be able to override the system and take back driving control at any time, whilst ensuring that the transition back to driver control in not inadvertently activated by the driver.
     
  • Driver warnings - Specifying the optical, audible and haptic signals that must be provided to the driver to signify operational status of the system and to provide any necessary warnings.
     
  • Sensing requirements - Specifying the minimum forward and lateral detection ranges of the system.
     
  • Data Storage System - Specifying that all ALKS equipped vehicles must be fitted with a Data Storage System for Automated Driving (DSSAD) capable of recording data on the system operation and any interactions between the system and the human driver.
     
  • Cybersecurity - Specifying that the ALKS must comply with the requirements of UN ECE Regulation No. 155-00 on cybersecurity.
     
  • Software updates - Specifying that the procedures and processes for any software updates must comply with the requirements of UN ECE Regulation No. 156-00 on software updates.

The test procedures specified in the Regulation cover a wide range of different scenarios, including:

  • Lane Keeping - To demonstrate the vehicle’s ability to remain within its lane at varying speeds and on varying road curvatures, even when the vehicle being followed is swerving within its lane or when there is another vehicle next to the test vehicle in an adjacent lane.
     
  • Collision avoidance - To demonstrate the vehicle’s ability to avoid a collision when there is an obstruction ahead of the vehicle, being either a stationary passenger car, a stationary motorcycle, a stationary pedestrian, a moving pedestrian or multiple obstacles.
     
  • Following a lead vehicle - To demonstrate the vehicle’s ability to follow another vehicle, either a passenger car or motorcycle, at various speeds and with varying levels of acceleration and deceleration of the lead vehicle.
     
  • Lane change of another vehicle - To demonstrate the vehicle’s ability to adjust its speed and avoid a collision when a vehicle "cuts in" between the test vehicle and the vehicle it was following.
     
  • Stationary obstacle after lead vehicle lane change - To demonstrate the vehicle’s ability to avoid a collision where the vehicle which the test vehicle was following performs an evasive manoeuvre to a avoid a stationary obstacle ahead of it.

Nick Bowyer